List of words

This is an alphabetical list containing the Old Japanese words and morphemes that appear in the corpus, together with English glosses where provided (work in progress). For this release there are 5572 main words, out of which more than 4200 have English glosses. Clicking on a highlighted item triggers a search in the Dictionary using the lemma ID for the item. This opens a search result page the Dictionary with the full entry for that item. Clicking on the lemma ID number in the Dictionary entry opens a Tree search result page with all the attestations in the corpus, and links to trees. The Dictionary may be accessed directly here.

a 1st person pronoun
a foot
a_ga_kokoro [makura kotoba for akasi]
aa [interjection]
aba Aba
abaya fast
abe Abe
abe [unknown]
abesimayama Abe-shima-yama
abetatibana Abe tachibana (citrus fruit similar to yuzu)
abik cast a net
abiki trawl net
abumi stirrup
abur broil
abura oil
abure overflow
abus discard
ada Ada
adas [unknown]
adatara Adatara
adi duck
adikage [unknown]
adikama Ajikama
adikamano [makura kotoba]
adima Ajima
adimasa areca nut palm (Areca catechu)
adimasanosima Ajimasa-no-shima (island of many adimasa (areca nut palms))
adimura flock of ducks
adipu Ajifu
adisapapu [makura kotoba for me (l050048a) and yworu(l052421)piru(l051781)]
adisawi hydrangea
adisikwitakapikwone Ajishiki-takahikone
adisukitakapikwone Ajisuki-taka-hiko-ne
ado what
adomop take along
aduki Azuki
adukina useless; shameful
aduma east; the east
adusa catalpa tree
adusayumi catalpa bow
adusayumi [makura kotoba]
adwo Ado
aga Aga
agak scratch with leg
agaki gallop(ing)
agar rise
agata field for cultivation
age go up
age raised garden bed
agi (my) lad
agura leg seat
agwo Ago
agwo net-handler
agwo my child
agwone Agone
agwora leg seat
ak be satisfied
ak be tired of
aka red, bright
aka crud
akadama red jewel
akaduk be tainted
akagwoma red colt
akamiyama Akamiyama
akane dark red colour (of the madder plant)
akane_sasi [makura kotoba]
akane_sasu [makura kotoba]
akap buy
akaposi bright star(s)
akaposino [makura kotoba for akuru asita]
akar redden
akara red
akarake reddish
akarapik glow red
akarapiku [makura kotoba]
akaratatibana red tachibana
akari banquet
akas pass the night
akasi Akashi
akat disperse t
akatoki dawn
akatuk be tainted
ake open t
ake dawn
ake dawn
ake red
akemake hold door
akesar dawn
aketat dawn
aki turn autumn
aki autumn
aki trade
aki clear, manifest
akidar be content
akidu Akizu
akidu dragonfly
akiduk turn autumn
akidunowonwo Akizu-no-ono
akidunwo Akizuno
akidupa autumn leaves
akidusima Akizu island
akidusima [makura kotoba]
akikaze autumn wind
akina Akina
akipagwi autumn bush-clover
akirake brilliant
akirame clear
akisa seaduck (Mergini)
akitar be content
akiyamano [makura kotoba]
akizikori buying by mistake (?)
aku Aku (only in Aku-no-ura)
akunoura Aku-no-ura
akura Akura
akuta waste, rubbish
akwi Aki
akwinonwo Aki-no-no
akwinooponwo Aki-no-ōno
akwo my child
am weave
ama rain
ama diver
amabune fisherman boat
amadamu [makura kotoba]
amadutap cross the skydescent from the sky
amadutapu [makura kotoba]
amagaker fly in the heavensfly
amagomor be kept in by rain
amagomori [makura kotoba for Mikasa]
amagwirap get cloudy
amagwiras make cloudy
amakaker fly in the heavensfly
amakumo heavenly cloud
amakumono [makura kotoba]
amaneku all over
amanokaguyama Ame-no-Kaguyama, Ama-no-Kaguyama
amar be in excess
amari remainder, leftover
amas leave excess
amasagaru [makura kotoba]
amasakaru [makura kotoba]
amasizim [unknown]
amasosor rise to heaven
amata extremely
amatar fill the sky
amater shine
amatob fly in heavens
amatobuya [makura kotoba]
amatutap cross the skydescent from the sky
amatutum be hindered by rain
amazakaru [makura kotoba]
ame rain
ame_ni_aru [makura kotoba]
amenokaguyama Ame-no-Kaguyama, Ama-no-Kaguyama
amepito heavenly person
ametusi heaven and earth
ametuti heaven and earth
ametutu Pacific swift (apus pacificus)
ami net
aminoura Ami-no-ura
amitori catching birds (and the like) with a net
amo mother
amori descend from heaven
amosisi mother and father
amotwozi lady master
amu horse-fly
amus bathe t
ana hole
ana how very!; oh!
anadama holed jewel
anani how very!; oh!
anase Anase
anasi Anashi
anatama holed jewel
anayum limp
ani (not) at all
anwo Ano
-ap- [durative]
ap meet
apa millet
apa Awa
apabi abalone
apabisiratama abalone white-jewel
apabitama abalone jewel
apadi Awaji
apadinosima Awaji-no-shima
apadisima Awaji-shima
apani [unknown] a lot?
apanokwosima Awa-no-koshima
apapu millet patch
apare wow
apareb love
aparem love
apase join
apase lined kimono
apasima Awashima
ape join
ape endure
apek pant
apete resolutely
api [reciprocal]
api meeting
apida time
apidune Aizune
apine Aine
apo Aho
apug revere
apugi fan
apumi Ōmi
apumi freshwater lake
apumiagata Ōmi-agata
apupi clustermallow (malva verticillata)
apure overflow
apusaka Ōsaka
apusawa rash, immediate
aputi melia azedarach (deciduous tree of the mahogany family)
-ar- [stative]
ar live
ara rough
arabwi be frustrated
araka dwelling
arakaki roughly woven fence
arakakino [makura kotoba for yoso]
arakazime previously
arakusa wild grass
arakwi newly broken sod
arakwi (just cut) unbarked wood
arakwi temporarily depositing a dead body in a coffin until the funeral can take place
arap wash
arapare be expressed
arapas express
arara scattered
arare hail
arare_puri [makura kotoba]
ararematubara Arare matsubara
aras let grow over
arasaka [unknown]
arase make exist
arasi storm; fierce wind
araswop fight
araswopi quarrel, argument
arat [unknown]
arata new
aratama Aratama
aratamano [makura kotoba]
aratape coarse cloth
aratapeno [makura kotoba]
aratasi new
arati [unknown; only in the place name Arachiyama]
aratiyama Arachiyama
aratu Aratsu
arawi Arai
are be overgrown
are give birth
are I
are Are
arenosaki Are-no-saki
aretug inherit
ari [stative]
ari existing
ari [unknown; only in ariwo (l080266)]
ariake dawn(ing) while the moon is still visible in the sky
arigaposi desirable to exist
arikinu [unknown; only in makura kotoba arikinu (l091042)]
arikinuno [makura kotoba for mipye (three layers), takara (l052068), sawesawe (l050730), ar (l030125a)]
ariko continue to existexist till now
arima Arima
arimat keep waiting
arinam [unknown, JDB suggests nam- is ‘line up’]
arine high mountain ridge
ariswo rocky shore
aritamotopor keep on going
aritigata [makura kotoba for /ari/]
ariwo tall, prominent hill
aruk walk
arumi rough sea
arwozi master
as dilute, weaken; make shallow
asa shallow
asa morning
asa hemp
asabiraki dawn, daybreak
asade hemp
asadi low cogongrass
asadi Asaji
asadipara cogon plain
asadukupi [makura kotoba for mukapu, mukapi
asaduma Asazuma
asagapo morning glory
asagwiri morning fog
asagwirino [makura kotoba]
asaka Asaka
asake dawn, daybreak
asamoyosi [makura kotoba for kwi]
asan in (every) morning
asana in (every) morning
asanaasana every morning
asanagi morning calm (of the sea)
asanasana every morning
asanegami bed head (lit. morning-sleep hair)
asanwo Asano
asapapur rustle feathers in the morning
asapi morning sun
asar hunt for food
asara shallow
asarakani lightly
asasimo morning frost
asate hemp cloth
asatorino [makura kotoba]
asatuyu morning dew
asatuyuno [makura kotoba]
asatwo morning door
asazinwopara shallow plain of close-grown, thin bamboo
ase get shallow
ase sweat
ase my dear (form of address to male familiars)
asi bad
asi foot
asi reed
asibi Japanese andromeda tree
asibye reed shore
asidama foot jewel
asigamo reed duck
asigani reed crab
asigara Ashigara
asigari Ashigari
asikaki reed fence
asikakino [makura kotoba]
asikara Ashikara
asikita Ashikita
asikwi Ashiki
asipara reed plain
asipiki mountain (conventionalized from the use of asipik(w)i no as mk for mountains and the like)
asipikino [makura kotoba]
asipikwi mountain (conventionalized from the use of asipik(w)i no as mk for mountains and the like)
asipikwino [makura kotoba]
asipo Ashio
asipye reed shore
asita morning
asitadu reed crane
asituki (a kind of) waterweed
asiya Ashiya
aso [term of endearment]
asob play
asu tomorrow
asuka Asuka
asukagapa Asuka-gawa
asukanokapa Asuka-no-kawa
asupa Asuwa
aswo Aso
aswob play
aswobap play
aswobas do [respect]
aswobi playing, game
aswoswo [unknown]
ata enemy
ata sudden (?)
atakamo exactly, completely
atane type of plant used in dyes: indigo?
atap be able
atape give
atapi price
atara in vain, be a waste
atarasi precious
atari vicinity
atasi other
atataka warm
atayumapi sudden illnes (?)
ate assign
ate Ate
atikawosi [makura kotoba for tika]
ato Ato
ato foot of the bed
atorap invite
atori brambling (a type of finch)
atu warm, hot
atumar collect i
atumono soup
atwo Ado
atwo foot of the bed
atwodokoro footprint
awa bubble, foam, spray
awi indigo (color, plant, dye)
awo blue, green, etc
awo Ao
awokaki verdant fence
awokakiyama mountain that looks like a green fence
awokumo blue cloud
awomidura [makura kotoba for Yosami]
awoniyosi [makura kotoba]
awopatano [makura kotoba]
aya weaving; woven pattern
ayakaki fabric fence
ayamat err
ayamye Japanese iris
ayamye weaver
ayamyegusa iris grass
ayani incredibly; inexplicably
ayapa [unknown; dangerous?]
ayapo dangerous
ayasi strange
aye fall off
ayu sweetfish
ayu Ayu
ayu East wind
ayukwo ayu young
ayum walk
ayumi step
ayupi cord used to tie a hakama (formal skirt) to one’s legs
ayuti Ayuchi
ayutigata Ayuchigata
aywok move
aywopi cord used to tie a hakama (formal skirt) to one’s legs
aza [unknown]
azamuk deceive
azapar entangled
azar [unknown]
azasa type of water plant: yellow floating heart?
azawarap ridicule
aze why
aze Aze
azekagata Azekagata
azikuma Ajikuma
aziro fishing weir
azirwo fishing weir
azirwokwi wooden stake for fishing weir
azu cliff
ba [topic particle]
bakari [restrictive particle]
bane stump [unknown]
baramon Brahman
be [necessitive]
bisibisi sound of sniffling
-bwi- [verbal formant]
bwi vicinity; area next to or beside
bye member of hereditary guild
da field
damwi [restrictive particle] within, around
dani [restrictive particle]
daniwoti temple patron
das put out
dati [pluralizer]
de go out
de appearance
di road
do what
do woman, women
domo [pluralizer]
dukap attach
dwoti fellow, peer
-e- [get]
e [potential]
e be able
e ey!
e Chinese hackberry
ee [interjection]
emisi Emishi: an ethnic group living in the east of Japan
enatu Enatsu
er choose
erab choose
erap choose
etukwi tax
ga [genitive case particle]
ga [complementizer particle]
gakwi hungry ghost (preta)
gane [conjunctional particle]
gani [conjunctional particle]
gape [emphatic final particle]
gapye [emphatic final particle]
gari place, whereabouts
gatera [adverbializer]
gateri [adverbializer]
go [genitive case particle]
go five (Sino-Japanese)
gomor [unknown: probably either (a), trees grow thickly, or (b), be secluded (come to an end)]
goto [restrictive particle]
goto be like
goto be like
gotoni [restrictive particle]
gumasi -ful [only in namitagumasi]
gwi [unknown; counter for horses?]
gwirap be cloudy
gwosi across; (on) the other side (of)
-i- [theme]
i [unknown function]
i [nominative case particle]
i five
i shoot
i sleep
i holy
ibaye whinney
ibuse gloomy, miserable
ibusem be sad
idas put out
ide go out
ide appearance
ide well!
idemas go out [respect]
idemi Idemi
idetat stand
idetati Idetachi
idu where
idu Izu
iduku where
iduma free time
idumi spring (of water)
idumi Izumi
idumigapa Izumi gawa
iduminokapa Izumi-no-kawa
iduminosatwo Izumi-no-sato
idumo Izumo
idumwo Izumo
idupye which direction
idura where(abouts)
idure which
idusi which side
iduti which side
ik go
ik breathe
ika what kind
ika holily
ikada raft, boat
ikaduti thunder
ikagwo Ikago
ikagwoyama Mt. Ikago
ikaki fence around a sacred space
ikapo Ikao
ikapokaze Ikao wind
ikar be angry
ikari anchor
ikaruga Ikaruga
ikaruga Japanese grosbeak
ikasama in what way
ikatuti Ikatsuchi
ikatutiyama Ikatsuchi-yama
ike let live
ike pond
ikedori prey caught alive; capturing alive
ikemidu water in a pond
ikenami waves in a pond
iki breath
ikidopor be vexed
ikidoporosi be depressed
ikiduk pant
ikidukasi sad, regretful
ikidukusi sad, regretful
ikop rest
iku how many
ikubaku how much
ikuda how much
ikudi Ikuji
ikumidake interlocking bamboo
ikupi ceremonial post
ikupisa [hayashi kotoba]
ikupisasa how long ago
ikura how much
ikuri reef
ikuri Ikuri
ikusa soldier
ikwoma Ikoma
im abstain
ima now
ima dream
imada not yet
imakwi Imaki
imas go [respect]
imasarani finally now
imase go [respect]
imasi thou; term of address
imasiku now
ime dream
ime hunting blind
imenowada Ime-no-wada
imidu Imizu
imo beloved
imo Imo
imogakiru [makura kotoba for Mikasa (based on a pun on mi-kasa)]
imogasima Imogashima
imogatewo [makura kotoba for tor]
imokwo beloved
imonoyama Imo-no-yamaImo-yama
imose Imose
imosenoyama Imose-no-yama
imoyama Imo-no-yamaImo-yama
imu beloved
imwo beloved
in die
ina no
ina rice
inaba leaf of riceplant
inabi Inami
inabituma Inami tsuma
inabwi refuse
inadaki top of the head; hair
inagara riceplant stem
inaki Inaki
inami Inami
inamikunipara Inami kunipara
inaminwo Inamino
inamituma Inami tsuma
inamusiro [makura kotoba for kapa ‘river’]
inamusiro rice-straw mat
inanome [unknown; rice straw woven to create a wall?]
inara Inara
inasa Inasa
inausiro [makura kotoba for kapa ‘river’]
inawokamo is it perhaps like that (I wonder)
ine sleep
ine rice
inisipye long ago
inogop face foe
inor pray
inoti life
inu dog
inukami Inukami
ip say
ipa house
ipa stone
ipabasir splash on rocks
ipagakur hide in stone fort
ipakuni Iwakuni
ipakuniyama Iwakuni-yama
ipakura Iwakura
ipakwi rocks and trees
ipakwi rock enclosure
ipakwi Iwaki
ipamaro Iwamaro
ipami Iwami
ipane bare rocks
ipap keep pure
ipape purification rites
ipapibe offering pot; purified pot for offerings
ipapimat wait chaste
ipapipe offering pot; purified pot for offerings
ipapo great rock
ipapo Iwao
ipare Iware
ipase stony rapids
ipase Iwase
ipasiro Iwashiro
ipasosok splash on rocks
ipata Iwata
ipatunano [makura kotoba for mata]
ipawi [unknown; only in ipawitura]
ipawitura [unknown; a type of vine, creeper]
ipe house
ipegoto word (news, communication) from home
ipekaze wind from home; wind blowing from the the direction of one’s home
ipi speaking
ipi house
ipi cooked rice
ipidurap [unknown]
ipisikwoga [unknown]
ipitug pass on orally
ipitute pass on orally
ipo small hut
ipopara Iohara
ipor lodge in hut
ipukar vexed
ipukasi curious (about), suspicious (about)
ipye house
ipyebito family member
ipyeduk approach one’s house
ipyedutwo family gift
ipyenosima Ie-no-shima
ipyes say [respect]
ipyesima Ieshima
ipyetuk approach one’s house
ipyewor live (in house)be in house
ir scorch
ir enter
iragwo Irago
iraka roof (ridge)
irana sad
ire put in
irima Irima
irinwo Irino
iripi setting sun
iritat enter
iriye inlet; small bay
iro colour
irodor paint
iroduk turn color
iroiro colours
irose maternal brothers
irotor paint
isa [interjection]
isagwo small stone
isam be in high spirits
isame remonstrate
isana whale
isanatori [makura kotoba]
isasa [unknown; holy bamboo?]
isasaka be for a little while
isasameni perfunctorily; a little
isatisukune Isachisukune
isaya Isaya
isayagapa Isaya gawa
isaywop waver
ise Ise
isi stone
isi Ishi
isikapa Ishikawa
isikapa rocky river
isitapuya [makura kotoba]
isitutui stone mallet
isosi diligent
isu rock
isukupasi [makura kotoba]
isunokami Iswo-no-kami
iswo rock
iswog hurry
iswokage shore reflection
iswokakur hide by seashore
iswonokami [makura kotoba for puru]
iswonokami Iswo-no-kami
iswop fight on
iswopye rocky shore
iswosaki Isosaki
ita sick
ita plank, shingle
ita extremely
itabur shake violently i
itaburasi shaking hard
itada Itada
itadak carry on
itaduk strain i
itadura aimlessly
itam be sick
itapasi painful
itar arrive
itate deep wound
itatwo plank door
iti market
itidisima Ichijishima
itipi Quercus gilva (red-bark oak)
itipitu Ichiitsu
itipiwi Ichiii (?)
itisaka [unknown; type of tree from the theaceae family]
itisi type of plant; thought to be a grass of the rumex genus
itisirwo clear, distinct
ito very
ito thread
itoka Itoka
itoma free time
itonokite extraordinarily
itop dislike, shun
itopasi unlikeable, unpleasant
itopi dislike
itu five
itu when
itu pure
ituk hold dear
itukasi sacred oak
ituki place of worship
ituki zelkova tree
itukinomiya place for worshipping the spirits; used about the Shrine of Ise
itukusi majestic
itukwi zelkova tree
itumo densely growing waterweed, dense waterweed
itupar tell lies
itupata Itsuhata
itupye when
itusiba dense brushwood, densely growing brushwood
itwo very
itwo thread
itwokwo beloved child
itwokwoya lovely
itwoma pause; free time, leisure time, spare time
iya properly
iyapikwo Iyahiko; Mt. Iyahiko
iyasi poor, shabby
iyatate arouse
iyazakar fade away
iyazeru [unknown]
iye be shot
iyo Iyo
iyoyo increasingly
iyusisino [makura kotoba; (being hurt like a hurt animal)]
iza [interjection]
izakapa Izakawa
izami Izami
izanap invite
izanipa Izaniwa
izar fish
izaripwi fire to fish by
ka [unknown]
ka [genitive case particle]
ka [focus particle]
ka counter for days
ka that
ka that (one)
ka day
ka fragrance
ka sculling oar
ka hair
ka deer
ka place
kabane corpse; remains
kabe wall
kabu head
kabura round tail of an arrow; arrow-whistle
kabus hang i
kada Kada
kadi oar
kadu paper mulberry tree (thought to be the same tress as taku (l052070))
kadu gate
kaduk dive
kaduke make dive
kadura headgear, hair decoration
kadura type of vine
kadurak use as a crown
kadurakwi Kazuraki
kadurakwi Kazuraki
kadurakwiyama Kazuraki-yama
kadus [unknown; maybe ‘entice, abduct’]
kadusak [unknown; maybe ‘entice, abduct’]
kadusika Katsushika, Kazushika
kadwo gate
kadwo [unknown (spine of a blade?)]
kadwode leaving one’s house
kagami mirror
kagaminoyama Kagami-no-yama
kagamiyama Kagami-yama
kagap dance and sing
kagapur cover head
kagar darn
kagari torch; light for fishing
kagaywop twinkle
kage light
kage ground pine
kagepimye Kagehime
kagetomo sunny side
kagi light
kagir be limited to
kagir radiate
kagiri limit, extent
kagirwopwi shimmer of hot air
kago light
kagu Kagu
kagupasi fragrant
kagure [unknown]
kaguyama Kaguyama
kagwo boatman
kagye light
kai oar
kainuk [unknown; possibly ‘poke out’]
kak scratch
kak write
kak relate to
kaka sound of eagle crying
kakage roll out
kakanak (eagles) cry
kakapu rag
kakar hang i
kakar become chapped
kakar be this way
kakarapasi stuck
kake hang t
kake lack
kake light
kaker soar
kaki [emphatic]
kaki light
kaki wall
kaki oyster
kakigapi oyster shell
kakire comb up
kakitor write down
kakitu fenced in area; area inside the fence
kakituke paint
kakitupata iris
kakitupata [makura kotoba for niturap]
kakiyama mountain that looks like a fence
kako boatman
kaku this way
kaku fragrance
kakum surround
kakumiyadari [unknown]
kakur be hidden
kakure hide i
kakurwop be hidden
kakus hide t
kakusama this way
kakusap hide
kakute this way
kakwo boatman
kakwo young deer
kakwo Kako
kakye chicken
kakye Kake
kam chew
kam chew rice to make sake
kama wild duck
kama scythe
kamadwo hearth
kamake be impressed
kamakura Kamakura
kamamaro scythe-chap
kamame sea gull
kamape plan
kamasisi serow
kame turtle
kame jar
kami spirit, god
kami up
kami chief
kami hair
kaminas chew rice
kamira fragrant leek?
kamisabwi appear godlike
kamitukenwo Kamitsukeno; Upper Keno
kamitukyenwo Kamitsukeno; Upper Keno
kamo [interrogative final particle]
kamo wild duck
kamogapa Kamogawa
kamokamo no matter how
kamoyama Kamo-yama
kamu spirit, god
kamuagar gods rise
kamubwi appear godlike
kamudumar (gods) congregate
kamukara deity character
kamukaze divine wind
kamukudas (gods) come down
kamunabwi Kamunabi
kamunadukwi 10th month
kamunobor (gods) ascend
kamunusi Shinto priest
kamusabwi appear godlike
kamusida Kamushida
kamusimwi appear godlike
kamusugwi divine cedar
kamutoke lightning
kamwi spirit, god
kamwiyoriita plank or board for beckoning or inviting the spirits
kamwo wild duck
kana plane, scraper
kanabata metal loom
kanakwi [unknown]
kanap be appropriate
kanarazu surely, definitely
kanarumasidumi [unknown]
kanasi sad
kanasibwi be sad
kanasira be sad
kanasuki metal plow
kanata that side, that direction
kanatwo metal door
kane foresee
kane fail
kane metal
kane Kane
kane bell
kanete already
kani crab
kanipa sakura tree bark
kanipa Kaniwa
kanumaduk [meaning and reading unknown]
kanwomaduk [meaning and reading unknown]
kap rear (animals)
kap buy, purchase, exchange
kapa river
kapa leather clothes
kapa hide, skin
kapadu river harbor
kapadu frog
kapagoromo leather clothes
kapakami upriver
kapakara river character
kapakuma river bend
kapapye river shore
kapar change i
kapara river flats
kaparap return
kaparapudi (a kind of) locust tree (Gleditsia japonica)
kaparu Kawaru
kapas shift t
kapase river rapids
kapataredoki dim time (time when you can jusdt about make out ‘who is that’)
kapatu river harbor
kapatwo river narrows
kape exchange
kape oak
kape [unknown]only found in wakakape (l080194)
kaper return
kapi keeper
kapi shell
kapi vale, glen
kapi worth, effect
kapigwo egg
kapina upper arm
kapir return i
kapo looks
kapobana kao flower
kapodori kao bird
kapotori kao bird
kapoya Kaoya
kaputi flat basin around a river
kapwi fire to scare off beasts (deer and boars)this is also interpreted as a fire to scare off mosquitos (l090081)
kapwi Kai
kapwiya hut to have a fire to ward off beasts
kapyer return
kapyerabani on the contrary
kapyeramani on the contrary
kapyerap returnreply
kapyeri return
kapyerimi look back
kapyeru Kaeru
kapyerude maple
kapyerusa when returning
kapyes return t
kar split
kar borrow
kar hunt
kara [ablative case particle]
kara salty
kara Kara; Korea; China
kara stem, handle
kara integral character
kara husk, shell
karaawi plumed cockscomb (celosia argentea)
karagoromo Korean garment
karakadi Korea rudder
karakaki Chinese fence
karakoromo Korean garment
karakoromo [makura kotoba]
karakoromu Korean garment
karakuni Korea
karamar be entwined
karani [conjunctional particle]
karani Karani
karanosaki Kara-no-saki
karanwo [unknown; boat made from a tall tree?]
karas dry t
karasaki Karasaki
karasu crow
karatama foreign jewel
karatati trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata)
karatomari Karatomari
karausu mortar
kare dry
kare get hoarse
kare be parted
kare that (one)
karepi dried rice
kari harvest
kari borrowing
kari wild goose
kari Kari
karibaka assigned lot of (grass) clipping, harvest work
karidi Kariji
karigane goose
karikomo clipped mat
karikomono [makura kotoba]
karimidar cut and leave scattered
karipa Kariwa
kariparap prune
karipo temporary dwelling
karisoke cut out
karitaka Karitaka
karite inside cap of an umbrella
karitum cut and collect
karu Karu
karuusu mortar
kas lend
kasa mushroom cap
kasa Kasa
kasa wen, bump, swelling
kasanap pile up
kasanar increase i
kasane pile up
kasanupi Kasanui
kasanupinosima Kasanui-no-shima
kase Kase
kasi oar
kasi oak
kasi mooring post
kasi walking; (on) foot
kasik cook rice
kasikwo awesome
kasikwo Kashiko
kasikwom fear
kasima Kashima
kasipa oak
kasipara Kashi hara
kasipi Kashii
kasipu Kashifu
kasira head
kasu dregs, lees (yeast deposits, sediment from sake making)
kasuga Kasuga
kasuganoyama Kasuga-no-yama
kasuganwo Kasuga no
kasugayama Kasuga-yama
kasum be misty
kasumi mist
kasumigakur be hidden in mist
kasumikakur be hidden in mist
kasuyuzake dregs or lees from sake mixed with hot water (drunk as a substitute for sake)
kaswoke faint
kat win
kata hard
kata side, direction (spatial and temporal)
kata bones, horns, shells, etc.
kata shape, pattern
kata tidal flat
kata shoulder
kata vine
kata single, one-sided, half-missing, tilted
kata difficult to do (when attached to the stem of a verb)
katabuk lean i
katabuke lean t
kataduk stick to side
katakagwo Asian fawnlily (Erythronium japonicum)
katakapi Katakai
katakik cock ear
katakwopwi one-sided love
katamake (time) approaches
katamat wait fervently
katame harden t
katami memento, keepsake
katami Katami
katamise regard as difficult
katane summarize
katap become intimate
kataputi deep pool by one bank of a river
katar relate
katarap swap stories
katarapigusa conversation topic
katarigoto narrated words
katarisake tell tales and amuse
kataritug pass by word of
katasar approach from the side
katasik sleep alone
katasipa Katashiwa
katati shape, appearance
katawoka Kataoka
katawoka Kataoka
katayak prognosticate with bones
katayor lean over, lean to one side, incline
katayori inclination, leaning, bias
kate join
kate be able to do
kati walking; (on) foot
katinwo Kachino
katori Katori
katu at least
katugatu so-so
katuma bamboo basket
katumata Katsumata
katura katsura tree (cercidiphyllum japonicum)
katusika Katsushika, Kazushika
katute not at all
katuwo skipjack tuna
katwori Katori
kawak get dry
kawor fragrant
kaya grass
kaya Kaya
kaye be parted
kayor meet, approach
kayu itchy
kayup move across i
kaywop move across i
kaza wind
kazanasi Kazanashi
kazapaya windswept place (also as place name and clan name)
kazapaya Kazahaya
kazapayano [makura kotoba for Miho]
kazar adorn
kazarap decorate
kazas adorn
kaze wind
kazu number
kazwope count
ke vanish
ke vanish
ke tree
ke time
ke fortune telling
ke hair
ke container
ke spirit
ke food
keburi smoke
kedasi perhaps
kedasiku perhaps
kedur comb
keduri combing
kekoromo down garment
kemomo a kind of peach which is small and furry (hairy)
kena Kena
kenaga last a long time
kenarabe pass time
kenokor remain unmelted
kenwo Keno
kepi Kehi
kepu today
keri gray-headed lapwing (Vanellus cinereus) (a kind of plover)
ket make vanish
keta support posts, pillars
keto word
keuse vanish
-ki- [simple past]
ki wear
ki teeth
ki alcohol
ki yellow
kibwi Kibi
kigisi green pheasant (Phasianus versicolor); Japanese pheasant
kik hear
kikam gnash teeth
kikasane wear many layers
kikase make hear
kikaywop go back and forth
kikikwopwi hear and be enticed
kikisir learn by hearing
kikitug keep listening
kikiwatar keep listening
kikos say [respect]
kikosimyes rule [respect]
kikosiwos rule [respect]
kikoye be heard
kiku Kiku
kiku Kiku
kimi my lord
kimi millet
kimigakiru [makura kotoba for Mikasa (based on a pun on mi-kasa)]
kimo liver; innards
kimomukapu [makura kotoba]
kimukap approach
kimwo liver; innards
kinak turn up singing
kinare wear out t
kinopu yesterdaydeictic
kinu garment
kinu garment
kinugasa silk umbrella
kipa edge
kipam make reach limit
kipamar reach limit
kipame make reach
kipami extent, limit
kipanare go away
kipar wear out i
kipatuku Kiwatsuku
kipe Kie?, Kibe?
kipop rival
kir cut
kirakirasi pretty
kire be cut
kirime Kirime
kirioros cut and drop (it)
kisa [unknown; possibly “wood grain” or more generally “pattern”, a less likely possibility is “elephant”]
kisanonakayama Kisa-no-nakayama
kisanowogapa Kisa-no-ogawa
kisayama Kisa-yama
kise dress
kisik keep coming
kisima Kishima
kiso last night
kisop wear layers
kisum keep
kita north
kitamas punish [respect]
kitana dirty, impure
kitapi dried fish
kitar show up
kitat come and stand
kitug keep coming
kitune fox
kiye vanish
kiyenokor remain unmelted
kiyeuse disappear
kiyo clean, pure
kiyor draw nigh
kiyose draw nigh
kiywo clean, pure
kiywob come and call
kiywome purify
kiywomi Kiyomi
kiywominokapa Kiyomi-no-kawa
kiywominomiya Kiyomi-no-miya
kiywominosaki Kiyomi-no-saki
kiywomipara Kiyomihara
kiywomiparanomiya Kiyomihara-no-miya
kiywosumi Kiyosumi
kiza [unknown; possibly “wood grain” or more generally “pattern”, a less likely possibility is “elephant”]
kizo last night
kizu wound
ko small
ko deep, intense
ko come
ko this (one)
ko tree
kobore be shattered
kobot shatter t
kodar grow lush
kodati copse
kodoki prayer
kodumi flotsam, junk
kodutap flit branch to branch
kog row
koga Koga
kogide row out
kogikakur row out of sight
kogimwi row along shoreline
kogin row out
kogir row in
kogitamwi row along shoreline
kogosi rugged and steep
kogoto [unknown]
kogoye freeze
koi lie down
koimarob writhe
koipus writhe
koke moss
kokibaku extreme in this way
kokidaku this much
koko here
kokoba this much
kokobaku this much
kokoda_(proximal) this much
kokodaku this much
kokono nine
kokoro heart
kokoroar empathize
kokorobiki feeling
kokorodwo spirit, resolve
kokorogu sad and painful
kokoronagusa balm to the soul
kokorotugwok [unknown]
kokorotuke admire
kokorotukus devote
kokorotuma dear spouse
kokupa wooden hoe
kokwida this much
kokwisi this much; very much
koma Kuguryo; Goguryeo; Koma
koma fat, fertile
komanisiki Koguryo brocade
komaturugi [makura kotoba for wa]
komayama Komayama
kome enclose
kome rice
komo mat (made from straw or leaves of the rice plant)
komor be secluded
komorap be secluded
komoridu hidden place
komoriduma hidden wife
komorikuno [makura kotoba]
komorinuno [makura kotoba]
komotatami [makura kotoba for pyeguri]
komukap face each other
komwi enclose
konata this side, this direction
konom like
konomo this side
konumi Konumi
konure new growth of a tree
kop pray for
kopata Kowata
kopata Kohata
kopinom beseech
kopor freeze i
kopore be shattered
koporogi cricket
kopot shatter t
kor freeze i
kor cut wood
kor rebuke, scold
kore this (one)
kori learn by failure
kori incense
koro by oneself; alone
koro time
koro die, dice
korogoro nowadays
koroku crow’s call “Caw caw”
koromo leather clothes
koromo robe, garment
koromode garment sleeve
korop rebuke, scold
koropus sleep alone [metaphor for death]
koros kill
kose do for me
kose Kose
kose Kose
koseyama Kose-yama
kosi waist, hips, back
kosi carriage
kosiki steaming basket
koso [focus particle]
koso Koso [unknown]
kosoba [focus particle]
kotape reply
koti this side, this direction
koti east wind
kotide speak
kotigoti here and there
kotita (rumoours are) annoying, vexing, painful
koto word
koto harp, zither
koto word
koto different, special
koto like, similarly (to)
kotoba word
kotodama the magical power of words
kotodate declare
kotodate pledge, vow
kotode blurt
kotogami harp top
kotogoto all; everything
kotokoto if it’s the same
kotomuke control with words
kotonagusi cure liquor
kotonar converse
kotonas gossip
kotopakari plan, method
kotopi bull
kotosapyek speak noisily and unintelligibly
kotosapyeku [makura kotoba for kudara (l051326) ]
kotosara intentionally
kotosi this year
kotota (rumoours are) annoying, vexing, painful
kototo [unknown]
kototop speak
kotowari principle; way (of the world)
kotoyose collaborate verbally
kotu detritus
kotumi flotsam, junk
kowe voice
koworokoworo sound of stirring a liquid
koyar be lying down
koyas lie down [respect]
koyopi tonight
kozi dig out
kozo last year
kozo last night
ku place, area
ku yellow, gold
kubi collar
kubi swan
kubu [unknown; only in kubututi, kubututui; the ‘head’ of a weapon?]
kubututui mallet-headed sword (?)
kuda tube, pibe; whistle made from a tube
kudak smash
kudake be smashed
kudar go down
kudara Kudara
kudaranopara Kudara-no-hara
kudaranwo Kudara no
kudari sleeve seam
kudas put down
kudira whale
kugane gold
kugi nail
kugutu (hand-) bag (made from kugu, a kind of sedge)
kui regret
kuk creep through
kuki steep mountain or ravine
kuku stem
kukum tuck
kukumira long-stemmed leek
kukumor be wrapped
kukur bind
kukur leak out
kukur dive in
kukuri Kukuri
kukutati turnip seedlings
kukwi stem
kum draw water
kum group t
kuma depth, shade
kuma bear
kumakasi large evergreen oak
kumakasi bear oak
kumaki Kumaki (in Noto peninsula)
kumanwo Kumano
kumatwo dark corner
kume Kume (clan name)
kumikaki assembled fence
kumimagap draw up (water) in confusion
kumo cloud
kumo spider
kumobanare (clouds) are distant
kumogakur be hidden by clouds
kumor be cloudy
kumorap remain cloudy
kumowi clouds
kumowikakur be hidden by clouds
kumu cloud
kumwo cloud
kumwobanare (clouds) are distant
kumwowi clouds
kuni place of origin
kunibye country side
kunipye country side
kunisu original inhabitants
kunuti in the land
kup eat
kupa scythe
kupa silkworm
kupa mulberry
kupakwo silkworm
kupape add
kupasi fine, beautiful, exquisite
kupe [unknown]
kupi stake, post
kupusi loving, beloved, longing for
kupye paddock fence
kur haul
kura dark
kura saddle
kura [unknown]
kura storehouse
kura seat
kuranasi Kuranashi
kurap eat and drink
kurapasi Kurahashi
kurapasigapa Kurahashi gawa
kurapasinoyama Kurahashi-no-yama
kurapasiyama Kurahashi-yama
kuras let time pass
kuratani narrow, deep valley (?)
kure grow dark
kure dark(ness)
kure Kure
kurekureto gloomily
kurenawi crimson (dyed from the safflower)
kuresige dark, dense grove of trees
kuri chestnut
kurikapyes go back and do again
kuritatane fold hand over hand
kuro black
kuru chestnut
kuru doorbolt
kurubyeki reel, spool
kuruma cart
kurup go mad
kurupos craze
kurusi painful, hard
kurusu chestnut grove; place where you can pick many checstnuts
kurwo black
kurwo black person [de-adjectival noun]
kurwokami black hair
kurwokami Kurokami (only found in Kurokami-yama)
kurwokamiyama Kurokami-yama; Mt. Kurokami
kurwokwoma black colt
kurwopo Kuroho
kurwousi Kuroushi
kurwozaya [unknown; said to be makura kotoba, but even the shape of the word is disputed; only one attestation]
kusa when coming
kusa grass
kusa material
kusabusi lying in the grass (of dear); resting place in the grass
kusaka Kusaka
kusakage grass shadow
kusakanoyama Kusaka-no-yama
kusakaye Kusakae
kusakwi grass and trees
kusator [unknown, probably pulling arrowroot]
kusatwor [unknown, probably pulling arrowroot]
kuse Kuse
kuse pebbly, sandy shoal; riverbank
kusi comb
kusi wine
kusi stake, post
kusi mysterious
kusige comb box
kusiro bracelet
kusirotuku [makura kotoba for tapusi]
kusubasi strange, mysterious
kusuri medicine
kusurisi apothecary
kususi mysterious
kuswo shit
kutami Kutami
kutas let rot
kutat end i
kuti rot
kuti mouth
kutu shoe
kuu achievement, great deed, distinction
kuyasi regrettable
kuye crumble
kuye pass over
kuzi Kuji
kuzigapa Kuji gawa
kuzu kudzu; Japanese arrowroot (a type of vine)
kuzu detritus
kuzupagata kudzu-leaf vine
kwaso pass, permit
kwi tree
kwi fortress, crypt
kwi Kii
kwidi Ki Road
kwinokapa Ki-no-kapa
kwinope Kinohe, Kinoe (?)
kwinoyama Ki-no-yama
kwir be misty
kwirap be cloudy
kwiras make cloudy
kwiri mist, fog
kwirigomor be wrapped in mist
kwisi bank, shore
kwisimi Kishimi
kwisimigatake Kisimi-ga-take
kwo small
kwo child
kwo water leek; water hyacinth (Monochoria korsakowii)
kwo fine rain
kwo basket
kwo dense, deep in colour
kwo silkworm pupa
kwo powder
kwoba Koba
kwobusuma bedding; (affectionately:) dear bedding
kwobwi flatter
kwodomo child
kwogare smolder
kwogata Kogata
kwogwoto roughly (describes manner of rubbing)
kwok stroke
kwokire insert by stroking
kwokisik stroke and spread
kwom bear child
kwoma pony, horse
kwomoti Komochi
kwomura calf or forearm
kwona Kona
kwonagwi water leek; water hyacinth (Monochoria korsakowii)
kwonami first wife
kwonotegasipa Platycladus orientalis (a conifer which has no difference between the front and back of branches and leaves)
kwopada Kohada
kwopi love, yearn for
kwopi love, yearning
kwopisi loving, beloved, longing for
kwoposi loving, beloved, longing for
kwopu Kofu
kwopusi loving, beloved, longing for
kwopwi love, yearn for
kwopwi love, yearning
kwopwiamar be infatuated
kwopwisi loving, beloved, longing for
kwopwisin die of love
kwopwiwasuregapi love-forgetting shell
kwos make pass over
kwosame fine rain
kwosi Koshi
kwosi across; (on) the other side (of)
kwosiba small branch, twig
kwosima small island
kwoso [focus particle]
kwosuge small sedge
kwoye pass over
kwoye get fat
kyeni extreme
kyenwo Keno
kyepu today
-kyer- [modal past]
kyer be coming
kyes wear [respect]
kyesa this morning
kyesi deviant
kyetu Ketsu
kyeya clear and cool??; distinct??
-m- [conjectural]
-m [verbal formant]
m give birth
ma pure, perfect, outstanding
ma eye
ma interval
ma horse
mabar guard
madara colourful, with deep colours in spots
madarabusuma multicolored bedding
madasi be early, not yet
made [restrictive particle]
madeni [restrictive particle]
madu first; for the first time
madusi poor
madwo window
mag ask
maga bad, unfortunate
magaki (a kind of) fence
magakoto unfortunate thing
magap be confused
magape confuse (someone)
magar be bent
mage bend t
magupasi beautiful, lovely to look at
magupasimadwo Maguwashimado
mak twist
mak sow
mak [unknown]
makadi paired oars 1
makagwoya (a kind of) splendid and great arrow
makai paired oars
makamo mallard
makanasi extremely dear, adorable
makane pure gold
makar recede
makaride withdraw [hum]
makase let do
make drive away
make be defeated
make prepare
make excellent tree
makiki Makiki
makiko [unknown; maybe ‘return home after retreating’]
makimoku Makimoku
makimuku Makimuku
makirapasi blinding
makoto truly
makupi excellent post
makur chase
makura pillow
makuraga Makuraga
makurak use as pillow
makwi excellent tree
makwisaku [makura kotoba for pi (Japanese cypress)]
makwo excellent child
mama cliff; precipice
mame bean
mami look
mamor guard
mamorap watch over
mamwor guard
mamworap watch over
mana incessant
mana loveable, dear
mana Mana
manabasira mana pillar
manabuta eyelid
managa Managa
managar [unknown]
managwo beloved child
managwo powdery soil
manakapi space between eyes
mane many
mane loom treadle
manek invite
manima just as it is
manukare escape
manurar [unknown; be scolded?]
manwo Mano
map dance
mapar guard
mapi offering
mapitogoto rumours, gossip (what others say)
mapora excellent place
maporama excellent place
maporoba excellent place
mapwi excellent fire
mapye front
mapyetukimi person-in-waiting, court attendant
mar excrete
mara rare
marapito guest, visitor
mare rare
mari [unknown]
maripu Marifu
mariya (some kind of) arrow
maro 1st person pronoun
maro round
maro chap, fella; attached to or forms terms of address to men
marob tumble
marogati my old man!
marone sleeping without undressing (wrapped up)
maru round
marune sleeping without undressing (wrapped up)
mas go [respect]
mas excel
masadeni really
masadukwo Masazuko
masaka here and now; the present
masaki safe and sound
masakidura a kind of vine
masameni straight; before one’s eyes
masani certainly
masar excel
masasini clearly, surely
mase go [respect]
-masi- [subjunctive]
masi thou; term of address
masibani frequently
masini increasingly
masirwo completely white
masite (even) more
masitoto meadow bunting (Emberiza cioides)
masizi [negative potential]
maso correct?, straight?
masopo cinnabar
masumasu increasingly
masumasuni increasingly
masumi [unknown]; both examples modify kagami ‘mirror’
masura fine, strong, manly
masuratakyewo brave boy
masurawo fine, strong, manly, brave man
maswo [unknown]
maswo excellent hemp
maswode both sleeves
maswokagami fine mirror
maswokagami [makura kotoba]
maswomi [unknown]; both examples modify kagami ‘mirror’
mat wait
mata again
mata complete
mata crotch, bifurcation
matama fine jewel
matama_tuku [makura kotoba]
matamade excellent fine hands
matamadura (probably a kind of) kadsura vine
matamate excellent fine hands
matamiru a kind of seaweed
matizake sake prepared for someone who is awaited
matori fine bird
matorisumu [makura kotoba for Unate]
matu pine
matubara pine plain
matubusa plentiful, detailed
matudaye Matsudae
matugapyeri [makura kotoba]
matukage pine shadow
matukapeno [makura kotoba]
matupar be wrapped
matupara pine plain
matur celebrate
matur serve
matura Matsura
maturap serve
maturape make serve
maturope make serve
maturwop serve
matuti Matsuchi
matwo target
matwokata Matokata
matwop get lost i
matwopap lost
matwopas make get lost
mauke establish
maus speak [hum]
mawi go [hum]
mawide go [hum]
mawir come [hum]
mawitar arrive [hum]
mawogomo mat (made from wild rice)
mawos speak [hum]
mawositamap speak [hum]
maya stable, barn
mayukaserapumo [unknown]
mayumi arrow (made from the mayumi tree)
mayup get lost
maywo eyebrow
maywo (silkworm) cocooon
maywobiki eyebrow, appearance of eye(s), eyeline
maywone eyebrow
maywop get lost
maywopi a frayed place on clothing
mazipar get mixed
mazipe mix t
mazir mix i
me eye
me opening; joining point; stitch
me sprout, bud, shoot
me seaweed
medasi loveable, praiseworthy
mede love
mede love
meduma beloved spouse
medurakwo Mezurako
medurasi rare
megoto meeting and talking
megu dear
megum take care of
megur move around
meguras turn t
meguri circumference
mekare be far from sight
mer [evidential (sight)]
-mi [infinitive form of adjectival copula]
mi [honorific]
mi three
mi birth
mi see
mi water
mi sea
mi god, spirit
miaraka palace
midar confuse
midare be confused
midaye be confused
midori green
midorikwo infant child
midu water
midu fresh, young
miduk be soaked
midukap water
midukukwi fresh stem
midukukwino [makura kotoba for woka ‘hill’ (l052341), midukukwi ‘fresh stem’]
midunoye Mizunoe
midupo fresh rice-ear
midura name of a male hairstyle
midutamauki excellent fine cup
midutori water bird
midutorino [makura kotoba for tat-, ukine-]
midwo water
migaposi desirable to see
mige honorable food
mige meat from the stomach of cows or sheep
migiri stone or tiled floor made to drain rainwater
migomori being hidden in water
miguma water bend
migwosi Migoshi
mika Mika
mikado honorable gate
mikadukwi new moon; crescent moon
mikadwo honorable gate
mikage palace
mikaki Mikaki
mikamo Mikamo
mikane Mikane
mikapa Mikawa
mikasa Mikasa, Fukuoka Prefecture
mikasa Mikasa
mikasipo [makura kotoba for Harima]
mikata Mikata
mike honorable food
mikemukapu [makura kotoba]
miki honorable wine
mikomokaru [makura kotoba for Shinano]
mikoto order, instruction
mikoto Highness, Honorable (in names, titles or appelations)
mikuku Mikuku
mikuma water bend
mikumari Mikumari
mikuni Mikuni
mikusa water weed
mikwo child of a god, an emperor/empress, or a high noble
mima Mima
mimakwiiribikwo Mimakiiribiko
mimi rumour
mimiga Mimiga
miminasi Mt. Miminashi
mimoro place to which the gods descend
mimoro Mimoro
mimorotwo Mimoroto
min water
mina water
mina (mud, pond, marsh) snail
minabe Minabe
minabuti Minabuchi
minadukwi 6th month
minagirap keep flowing
minagwirap water floating like mist
minakipa water edge
minami wind blowing from the south
minanosegapa Minanosegapa
minanowata [makura kotoba for ka-gurwo; (snail intestines)]
minasegapa river without water; dry river
minasigapa [makura kotoba for taye- ‘cease’ (l031090a); lit. ‘river without water’]
minasigapa river without water
minasitapu [makura kotoba for uwo (l052296)]
minasoko bottom of the water
minasokopu [makura kotoba for omi]
minasosoku [makura kotoba for omi (l052296) and sibi (l051920)]
minatwo harbor
minatwokaze harbor wind; wind in the harbor
minaura divination in or by water
minawa bubbles, foam
mine peak
miniku ugly
mino straw cloak
minume Minume
minumye Minume
minwo Mino
miokur see off
mipakasiwo [makura kotoba for Tsurugi]
mipanada blue
mipo Miho
mipodori little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis)
mipodorino [makura kotoba for kaduk, ikiduk]
mipune Mifune
mipye Mie
mira leek
miru (a kind of (edible)) seaweed
misagwo osprey
misake look away
misaki honorable cape
mise show
misibu scum
misima Mishima
misimanwo Mishimano
misimaye Mishimae
misog wash or purify body in/with water
misome Misome [unknown]
misumaru pearl necklace or bracelet
mit be full
mit [unknown; used in the makura kotoba ‘swora mitu’]
mita together with
mitama dead person’s spirit or soul
mite fill
mitegura offering to the gods
miti full
miti road
mitibik lead way
mitinoku Michinoku
mitorasi bow
mitu Mitsu
mitubo water bubble
mituga Mitsuga
mituguri triple chestnut
mitugurino [makura kotoba for naka]
mitukapa Mikawa
mitukwi honorable offering
mitumitusi [makura kotoba for Kume]
miture [unknown: maybe ‘be tired/worn out’]
mitwo port, harbour
miura Miura
miwa sake as offering to the spirits
miwa Miwa
miwasure forget what you have seen
miwatas look away
miwatasi other side, opposite side
miwo waterway, channel
miwo Mio
miwobik row with the flow
miwori Miori
miwotukusi channel pylon
miwotukusi [makura kotoba for tukus]
miya palace
miyabasira palace pillar
miyabwi appear elegant
miyabwi elegance
miyabwiwo elegantier
miyade leaving the palace
miyadesiriburi sight from behind of leaving for the palace
miyake Miyake
miyakwi wood used for building a palace
miyakwo capital
miyakwobwi have air of
miyakwodori capital bird
miyakwokatapito capital-area person
miyakwopik change capital site
miyapito palace retainer
miyar look away
miyatukape serve at palace
miyaziro Miyajiro
miyosi Miyoshi (in Miyoshino)
miyosinwo Miyoshino
miyu [evidential final particle]
mizika short
mizo ditch
mo [topic particle]
mo [emphatic final particle]
mo be plentiful (of plants and growths)
mo beloved
mo surface
mo skirt
mo mourning
mo seaweed, water weed
mobik drag skirt
moda silence
modas remain silent
moga [final optative particle]
moi sprout
moka [final optative particle]
mokoro like, similar to
mokorowo peer, equal
mokwo ally, partner
mom rub
momit (leaves) turn autumn color
momitap being autumn colored
momiti maple
momitiba colored leaf
momitipa colored leaf
momo many
momo peach
momo_tarazu [makura kotoba]
momodar be plenty
momodar be plenty
momodutapu [makura kotoba]
momokine [makura kotoba]
momokuma many bends
momokusa many kinds
momopune many boats
momosikwi many-stone fortress
momotar be plenty
momotidar be plenty
momotori many birds
momoyogusa multi-age grass
momu [unknown]
mone [unknown]
mono [conjunctional particle]
mono person
monoip speak
monoka [conjunctional particle]
monokara [conjunctional particle]
monomawos speak [hum]
monomop think
mononopu courtiers serving a lord
mononopuno [makura kotoba for udi, yaswo, etc.]
monosapani [makura kotoba]
monowo [conjunctional particle]
monoyuwe [conjunctional particle]
mop think
mopakitu Mohakitsu
mopi jar
mopusitukapuna small carp which lives in seaweed
mor watch out for
mor pile up
mor pluck, pick
mor grow thickly
mor leak
mori guard
mori thickly grown forest
moribye guard
moribye Moribe
moro all
moro fragile
moro place to which the gods descend
morokwosi Morokoshi (China)
moromoro all
moropito everyone
moroti [unknown; possibly ‘you guys’ or personal name Morochi]
mosi if
mosuswo hem of a skirt
mot hold
mote make hold
moti 15th day of the month
moti birdtrap (a stick smeared with mochi (rice paste) to which a bird would get stuck); birdlime
motidori bird stuck on a mochi birdtrap
motidukwi full moon
moto counter for plants
moto origin, beginning
motome seek
motomo rightly
motona randomly
motona restless, uneasy
motopor go back
motoporop crawl around
motopos make go back
motopototogisu old (original) cuckoo
motopye original vicinity
motoyama low mountain at the foot of a higher mountain
moye feel passion
moye sprout
mozu bull-headed shrike (lanius bucephalus)
mu six
mu beloved
mudak embrace
mugasi happy, grateful
mugi wheat
mugura Japanese hop (humulus japonicus)
mugurapu weed patch
muk face i
muka opposite side
mukabaki an item of clothing worn while travelling to protect the legs
mukabus spread
mukap face i
mukape welcome
mukasi (in) olden times; (in) the ancient past
mukau nothingness
mukaunosatwo village of nothingness; untainted and natural place
muke face t
mukimuki when everyone acts according according to their own whims
mukwo Muko
muma horse
mumare be born
muna empty
muna chest
munagi eel
munakoto false words
munasi empty
mune chest
mura group, flock
muragar be many together
murakimono [makura kotoba for kokoro]
muranape divination (using seedlings)
murasaki purple, violet; colour dyed from the root of the plant
murasakino [makura kotoba for nipop (l031335a), nataka (l092060) and kwogata (l051375)]
muratama grouped jewels
muratori flocking bird
muratorino [makura kotoba for ‘set out’ etc. (like flocking birds)]
muratwo kidney
murazi Muraji
mure be many together
muri guard
murwo room
murwo temple juniper
murwo Muro
murwogaya Murogaya
murwokami Murokami (only in Murokami-yama)
murwokamiyama Murokami-yama; Mt. Murokami
murwopu Murō
mus grow
musasabi Japanese giant flying squirrel
muse sob
museb sob
musep sob
musi insect
musi [meaning unknown]
musibusuma ‘mushi’ bedding [meaning of ‘mushi’ unknown]
musiro mat
musub scoop
musub bind
musubore be contrite
muta as, like
mutu affectionate
mutukwi 1st month
mutumasi close, dear
mututa Mutsuta
muyu six
muzasabi Japanese giant flying squirrel
muzasi Muzashi; today usually pronounced Musashi
mwi turn
mwi life
mwi substance
mwi snake
mwi vicinity
mwina all
mwinapito everyone
mwituti dragon
mwo beloved
mwokwo ally, partner
mwomwo many
mwomwo [unknown; only in mwomwonagani (l080269); very? (from mwomwo l002012), thigh?, leg?
mwomwodar be plenty
mwomwodar be plenty
mwomwodutapu [makura kotoba]
mwomwonagani [unknown; for a long time? with outstretched legs?]
mwomwotidar be plenty
mwoye feel passion
mye woman
myedori female bird
myepi Mehi
myes rule
myesage summon to palace
-n- [negative]
-n- [perfective]
n [dative case particle]
n [conjunctional particle]
na [prohibitive]
na [diminutive suffix]
na [prohibitive final particle]
na [dative case particle]
na [genitive case particle]
na [exclamative final particle]
na non-existent
na why
na 2nd person pronoun
na wave
na fish
na name
na blade
na [diminutive suffix]
nabar be hidden
nabari Nabari
nabe make bow
nabe line up t
nabe side-dish pot
nabeni [conjunctional particle]
nabik bow
nabikas make bow
nabike make bow
nabur play
nada open sea
nadas pat [respect]
nade pat
nadesikwo pink, carnation (flower of the Caryophyllaceae family)
nado what
nadori your bird
nadu [unknown]
naduke give name
naduki steeped in water
nadum bog down
nadusap drift
naga long
nagakwopwi long love
nagame long rain
naganagasi long
nagapito long-lived person
nagara [adverbializer for nouns, conjunctional particle for verbs]
nagara Nagara
nagarape pass
nagare flow
nagas make flow
nagasap make flow
nagate long travel
nagati long road
nagatukwi ninth month
nagatwo Nagato
nagaya long narrow house
nagaywo long night
nage throw
nagek weep
nagekap sigh
nagekase make sigh
nageya arrow thrown by hand
nagi calm (of the sea)
nagisa water’s edge
nagori
nagoya softness
nagupasi beautifully-named, renowned
nagurusano [makura kotoba for topozakar]
nagusa thing that consoles one’s mind
nagusam be at ease
nagusame set at ease
nagusamor set at ease
nagwi become calm
nagwi water leek; water hyacinth (Monochoria korsakowii)
nagwi a kind of water hyacinth (Monochoria vaginaliz)
nagwo Nago
nagwoya softness
nak cry
naka relationship
nakada relationship
nakagoto hearsay
nakamana [unknown]
nakanaka contrariwise
nakanobori mid-office visit to capital
nakapazu [unknown; bowstring?]
nakati second son
nakatomi Nakatomi (clan)
nake make cry
naki crying
nakisapa Nakisawa
nakisima Nakishima
nakizumi Nakizumi
naku_kwo_nasu [makura kotoba for ne nomwi nak-; sitap-; koto dani twopazu]
nakupasi beautifully-named, renowned
nakwi Naki
nakwo Nako
nakwosi Nakosi (NB: (also construed as) pun on ‘na kwosi’ “don’t cross”)
nakyek weep
nam line up
namar be hidden
namasu thinly cut meat eaten raw
namayomino [makura kotoba]
namazipwi with effort
name line up t
name smooth
nami lined up
nami wave
namikura Namikura
naminami equivalence
namisiba Namishiba
namita tears
namitagumasi tearful
namo [focus particle]
namu [focus particle]
namuti 2nd person pronoun
namwi tasting (of new rice)
namye rude, ill-mannered
-nana [negative]
nana seven
nanakuruma seven carts
nanakusa seven kinds
nanapusuge seven-jointed sedge
nanapye seven layers
nanase seven rapids
nanayo seven generations
nanaywo seven nights
nane you my dear; dearie (friendly/intimate term of address to young women)
-nani [negative]
nani why
nanigokoro what sort of feeling
nanigoto what matter
nanimono what thing
nanipa Naniwa
naniyuwe what reason
nanor state name
nanoriso gulfweed
nanu seven
naoto dear younger brother
-nap- [negative auxiliary]
napa rope
napa Nawa
napa seedling
napanori kelp
napasiro seedling bed
nape [conjunctional particle]
nape side-dish pot
nape offering
nape seedling
napeni [conjunctional particle]
napo furthermore
napo gentle
naponapo obedient
napori Naori
nar [hearsay]
nar make sound
nar be born
nar make a living
nara (a kind of) oak tree
nara Nara
narab be in line
narabe line up
narapito Nara person
naras train
naras level
nare become familiar and habitual
nare 2nd person pronoun
nari work
naripapi crops; farm products
narutwo Naruto
nas cry
nas bear and raise
nas sleep [respect]
nas make sleep
nasaka Nasaka
nase my dear (form of address to male familiars)
nasi pear
nasugi Nasugi
naswope liken
nataka Nataka
natu summer
natugusa summer grass
natuk get used to
natukage summer shadow
natukasi feeling strong affection for
natuke win over
natukusa summer grass
natukuzu kudzu; Japanese arrowroot (a type of vine)
natukuzuno [makura kotoba for tayenu ‘doesn’t cease’ (negative of taye)]
natume Chinese date, jujube (Ziziphus jujuba)
natumusi summer insect
natumwi Natsumi
natumwi Natsumi
natunwo summer field
natuswo summer hemp
natuswobiku [makura kotoba for place names Unakami (l090069), Unai (l052255) and for inoti (l051102); from various plays on string made from pulled summer hemp]
nawi earthquake
nayam suffer
nayamas make worry
nayamasi suffering (over)
nayu pliant, flexible
nayutake pliant, flexible bamboo
naywo pliant, flexible
naywotake pliant, flexible bamboo
na…so [prohibitive]
na…sone [prohibitive]
ne sleep
ne root
ne sound
ne peak
ne [diminutive suffix]
nebap spread roots
nebu silk tree (Albizia julibrissin)
nedar be rooted
nedwo sleeping place
negap hope
negwi pray
nemokoro gentle
nemokorogoro gentle, with care
nenak weep
nepap spread roots
ner knead
nerap aim
neraye [passive or potential form of sleep]
neri skilfull flattery
neta envious, jealous
netukwo [unknown; only in netukwogusa]
netukwogusa [unknown; name of a plant, perhaps pasqueflower (Vovin in commentary on 14.3508)]
neyadwo bedroom; place for sleeping
neyaparakwosuge small sedge with soft roots
nezame wake
nezirwo white-rooted; with white roots
nezirwotakagaya root-whitened tall-sedge
ni [dative case particle]
ni [conjunctional particle]
ni resemble
ni boil
ni copula
ni the colour red; bright red
ni baggage
nige flee
nigir grasp
nigisi Nigishi
nigor get dirty
niki intimately
niki soft, fine (antonym of ara l007034)
nikibwi get familiar (with)
nikime soft, fine seaweed
nikipada soft fur
nikitadu Nikitazu
nikitape soft, fine cloth
nikitatu Nikitatsu
niku unpleasant
nikum hate
nikwo gentle, soft
nikwode soft hand
nikwogusa soft grass
nikwoya softness
nikwoyokani smiling gently
ninap shoulder
ninopo beautiful red
ninwo cloth
nipa surface of the sea
nipaka grave (of illness)
nipasi sudden
nipasuzume garden sparrow
nipatadumi garden flood
nipe offer food to the gods
nipi new
nipibari newly cleared road, path, or field
nipigupamaywo new silkworm cocoons; silkworm cocoons from this year
nipikapa Niikawa
nipikusa new grass
nipimo mourning for someone recently deceased
nipimurwo newly built house
nipinape offering of the first fruits
nipipada first-touch skin
nipisakimori new guard
nipita Niita, Nitta
nipo [unknown]
nipodori little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis)
nipodorino [makura kotoba for kaduk, ikiduk]
nipop fragrant
nipopas dye beautifully
nipope dye
nipos dye with needles
nipoye fragrant
nipu new
nipu Nyū
nipubukani suddenly
nipubuni beamingly (of smiling)
nire elm (tree)
nisi westwind
nisiki brocade; cloth woven with multi-coloured yarn
nituk go well with
nitukap redden; become red
niturap glow red
nitutuzi azalea (with red flowers)
no [genitive case particle]
no copula
no field, small plain
no [diminutive suffix]
no [complementizer particle]
nobe extend t
nobor climb
nobori go to capital
nobose make go up
nodoni calmly, peacefully
nodoyop whisper
nogop wipe
nok leave (behind)
noko Noko
nokor remain
nokos leave t
nom drink
nom pray
nomi [restrictive]
nomwi [restrictive]
nor ride
nor say
nor scold
nori dharma, law, custom
nori seaweed
norito prayer
nosaki tribute of the first crop of the season
notab speak [respect]
noti after; afterwards
notise Nochise
noto Noto
notogapano [makura kotoba]
notoka Notoka
notose Notose
nozok omit
nu swamp
nubatama [unknown; only in nubatamano]
nubatamano [makura kotoba for black, night etc.]
nuganape pass
nuk poke
nuk strip
nuka forehead
nukaduk bow head
nukatuk bow head
nuki horizontal weave, weft
nukisu bamboo mat
nukite discard
numa swamp
nuna Nuna (only in Nunagawa (l051643))
nunagapa Nunagawa
nunapa junsai (Brasenia schreberi)
nunwo cloth
nup sew
nupime seam
nupituke sew together
nur paint
nuras soak t
nuras unfasten
nure stained
nure come loose
nuru lukewarm
nurunuru slippery
nusa offering
nusi master
nusubito thief
nusum steal
nute bell
nuye White’s thrush (Zoothera dauma)
nuyekusa pliant grass
nuyekwotori thrush hatchling
nwo [genitive case particle]
nwo field, small plain
nwobiru field leek
nwobye vicinity of a field
nwodukasa small elevation in a field
nwoganape pass
nwoganape pass
nwopye vicinity of a field
nwozi rainbow
ob gird on
obiye be scared
obo vague
obobosi gloomy
oboroka negligent
obotor blanket
obotukana unreliable
odi fear
odorok be surprised
ogirona very big
oi age
oiduk age
ok put
okami water god
oki breath
oki heart of hearts
oki_tu_tori [makura kotoba for kamo (l051191)]
okibye offing side
okimaro Okimaro
okime Okime
okina old man
okinaga Okinaga
okinasabwi tremble like an old man
okipurus discard and leave till it gets old
okipye offing side
okiswo rocks in the offing; rocky offing; the one example involves a pun on oki ‘breath’
okiswo Okiso (only found in Okiso)-yama
okiswoyama Okiso-yama; Mt. Okiso
okonap handle
okos raise
okose offer
oku future
okuduma beloved wife
okuka distant place; deep place
okumake anticipate
okumape anticipate
okur dispatch
okura Okura
okure be left behind
okute late growing season
okuyama deep mountain
okwi arise
ome face
omi palace servant
omina old woman
omino [unknown; only in ominokwi]
ominokwi fir tree
omo heavy
omo surface
omo mother
omogapar change facial expression
omokage image
omokakus hide face
omokata face appearance
omop think
omopiape happen to think
omopiduma beloved spouse
omopikane cannot think
omopimatupar think deeply
omopisugus forget
omopisugwi be forgotten
omopisugwos forget
omopitaye resign oneself
omopituk be plagued by a
omopiyar set at ease
omopos think [respect]
omoposi which one is thinking of
omopoye be thought
omosirwo pleasant, charming, fetching
omotakabuta [unknown]
omote front
omotiti mother and father
omowa facial features, looks
omoya face?
onazi same
ono reflexive pronoun
ono [interjection]
onodukara reflexive adverb
onoduma own spouse
onogasisi each, individually
onogoro Onogoro (only found in Onogoro-shima)
onogorosima Onogoroshima
onore reflexive pronoun
onosi master
onotuma own spouse
onusi master
op cover
op bear
op chase
opisik catch up with
opisoya quivered arrow
opo vague
opo grand
opo great in amount or degree
opoarakwi Ōaraki
opoarakwinwo Ōarakino
opoba Ōba
opobakwo Ōbako
opobune big boat
opoga Oga
opokimi great lord
opokimino [makura kotoba for mikasa (based on a pun on mi-kasa)]
opokurwo big blackie (big, black falcon) [de-adjectival noun]
opokwi Ōki
opokwinoyama Ōki-no-yama
opomi [honorific]
opomiyabito palace person
opomiyapito palace person
oponawa [unknown]
oponobwini [unknown]
oponoura Ō-no-ura
oponwo Ōno
oponwoyama Ōno-yama
opop cover, hide t
opopara Ōhara
opoposi gloomy
opopune big boat
oporoka neglectful
oporoka neglectful
opos cultivate
oposaka Ōsaka
oposazaki Ōsazaki
opose make bear
oposima Ōsima
opoti big road
opotomo Ōtomo
opotomo Ōtomo (clan)
opotomonomitu Ōtomo-no-mitu
opotor blanket
opotorino [makura kotoba for pagapi]
opotu Ōtsu
opotukana unreliable
opoura Ōura
opowosodori big-lie bird; false or lying bird
opoya Ōya
opuse make bear
opuwo big fish
opuwoyosi [makura kotoba for sibi]
opwi grow
opwisi big stone
opwisik grow and thicken
opwitat flourish
or weave
orab wail
ori go down
oroka shallow (in feeling or commitment)
oros let down
oros weave [respect]
orosuwe set down
os push
osaka Osaka
osape block
osi rock
osinabe push down (e.g., to make bow)
osinumi Oshinumi
osipirak pry open
osipye rocky shore
ositare Oshitare
ositer shine across
ositeru_ya [makura kotoba]
ositodwo [interjection]
oso stupid
osobur push and move t
osoburap push and move t
osoki garment
osori fear
osu rock
osupi cloak
osupi rocky shore
otapap [unknown]
oti fall
oto sound
oto young and beautiful
otodoro [unknown]
otopi younger sibling
otopimye younger princess
otor be worse off
otorope become weak
otos drop t
ou Ou
oya parent
oyazi same
oyob reach
oyobi finger
oyodure lie
oyosi old
p say
pa [topic particle]
pa [allative case particle]
pa feather
pa leaf
pa tooth
pa blade
pa iteration
pabakar be hampered
pabiro wide-leafed
pabuk ruffle (feathers)
pabur send away
paburi rustling of wings
pada skin
pada very
padara lightly and in spots (of snow falling and settling)
padare light and scattered falling of snow; lightly fallen and scattered snow or frost
padasusuki banner plume-grass
padukasi ashamed
paduma [unknown]
pag peel
pag fletch
pagapi wings
pagapi Hagai
pagas separate t
pagukum wrap in feathers
pagwi bush clover (any flowering plant of genus Lespedeza)
pak sweep
pak wear
paka unit of labor, shift, allotted task
paka grave, tomb
pakama hakama: formal skirt
pakar measure
pakasi side-sword; sword worn in the belt
pakata Hakata
pake make wear
pakupi Hakui
pakwo box
pakwone Hakone
pakwoya Hakoya
pakwoye [unknown]
pam eat
pama beach, shore
pamabwi by the beach, nxet to the beach
pamabye beach vicinity
pamamatu shore pine; pine at the shore
pamamo gulfweed
pamapye beach vicinity
pamasu beach sandbar
pamasudori bird of the beach
pamasudori [makura kotoba for anayum (“walk like a beach bird”)]
pamatudura beach vine
pamatutwo gift from the beach
pame throw in
pana flower
pana nose
panabatisu flowering lotus
panaduma beautiful wife
panaduna nose tether
panagupasi [makura kotoba for sakura (cherry, l051875), asi (reed, l052471)]
panakatumi name of a flower that grows along the waterside; not clear which flower
panakazu tall sedge
panapada extremely
panapwi sneeze
panar be expelled
panare be separated
panareswo isolated, separated rock
panari young girl (with hair like that)
panariswo isolated, separated rock
panasusuki flowering plume-grass
panat separate t
panatatibana flowering tachibana
panayaka radiantly beautiful
pane splash
pane wings
panekwir splash water with wings making it mistyis this really “with wings” or pane- ‘reject; splash’?
panezu [unknown (name of a red flower which blooms in early summer)]
pani clay
panipu clay patch
panipu Hanyū
panisina Hanishina
paniyasu Haniyasu
pap crawl
papa mother
papaki broom
papaswo oak
papaswoba oak leaf
papaswobano [makura kotoba for papa]
papatwozi mother master
pape extend thoughts
pape fly
papinor crawl onto and ride
papuk ruffle (feathers)
papur be brave
papur rustle wings
par stretch t
par open land
para field, plain
para protruding, middle part
parabap crawl on belly
parakara sibling
parap repent
parape purify oneself
pararakas make flutter
pare swell
pare clear up
pari Japanese alder (Alnus japonica)
paribukurwo needle bag
parima Harima
paroparo distant, far (away, apart)
paru spring
paru_kasumi [makura kotoba for kasuga l051241]
paruke distant
parupana spring flower
parupi spring sun
parusame spring rain
parutorino [makura kotoba for ne wo nak-, samayop-]
parwobarwo distant, far (away, apart)
parwoparwo distant, far (away, apart)
pasa Hasa
pasam hold between
pasama (narrow) valley
pasasage make gallop
pasase make run
pase make run
pasi dear, beloved
pasi bridge, ladder
pasi time, juncture
pasi chopsticks
pasi_mukapu [makura kotoba]
pasiduma dear wife
pasikiyasi [makura kotoba]
pasikiyosi [makura kotoba]
pasikyeyasi [makura kotoba]
pasir run
pasira column, pillar
pasiride place close to the entrance (as you have just come out)
pasiriwi flowing well
pasitateno [makura kotoba for sagasiki yama]
pata originally
pata perhaps, maybe
pata loom
pata flag, standard, banner
pata border, edge
pata fin
patade side direction
patake paddy field
patakwo [unknown; person working in the field?]
patanwo Hatano
patapoko spear with a small standard (banner) attached at the top
patar levy
patas accomplish
patasusuki banner plume-grass
patatagi [unknown; likens dressing up to the actions of a seasbird]
patate side direction
pate end
patisu lotus
patisu lotus
patu first
patuka to a small degree
patupana first flower
patupatu barely
patur flay
patuse Hatsuse
patwo pigeon
paya early
paya Haya
payabusa peregrine falcon; falcon
payabusawake Hayabusawake
payamati Hayamachi
payas praise
payasi forest, arboretum
payasi runner on an umbrella
paye grow
payuma horse used by government officals along the official major roads
pazi Haji (clan name)
pazik unstring (bow)
pazikami Japanese pepper tree
pazime begin t
pazu notch; bowstring
pe counter for layers
pe elapse
pe string (loom)
pe above
pe direction
pe bow (of a boat)
pe pot
pemi snake
peswo ball of hemp thread
pi speaking
pi daytime
pi direction
pi ice
pi hinoki; Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa)
pibari (Japanese) skylark
pibik reverberate
pid get drenched
pida Hida
pidari left
pide excel
pider (sun) shines
pidi mud
pidikwi Hijiki
pidut get muddy
pigaker [unknown]
pige beard
pigurasi evening cicada (tanna japonensis)
pik pull
pik pluck, strum (a stringed instrument)
pika Hika
pikage ground pine
pikager [unknown]
pikar shine
pikasa Hikasa
pike be pulled
piketa Hiketa
piketori following bird
pikide Hikide
pikikwos transport
pikinobor haul upstream
pikinuras unfasten
pikire tug
pikita rattle (to scare birds away)
pikitu Hikitsu
pikiuwe transplant
pikiwor hang
pikiyodi tug
pikodur pull
pikodurap pull
pikuma Hikuma
pikwo male; male god
pikwo grandchild
pikwo [unknown; in pikwoposi]
pikwoposi Altair (Cow-herder star)
pikwoye young branch; new branch
pikyeni (more and more) with each day
pime [unknown; only found in pimekabura; but cf. pime ‘haw finch’]
pime haw finch
pimekabura a (n unknown) kind of arrow-whistle
pimi Himi
pimo cord
pimoroki (evergreen) trees planted at a shrine to celebrate the spirits
pimugasi east
pimuka Hyūga
pimukap flash
pimusi moth (from silkworm)
pimutuki [unknown; long dress for infants?]
pimye girl
pimyenaswob flirt with girls
pimyesima Himeshima
pimyesugapara Himesugawara
pina countryside
pinamisi Hinamishi
pinarabe pass time
pinazakar leave the capital and go to the distant countryside
pinemosuni all day (long)
pinikyeni (more and more) with each day
pinogure sunset; traditionally regarded as a makura-kotoba, but we follow Vovin in commentary on 14.3402
pinokuma Hinokuma
pinokumagapa Hinokuma gawa
pipaboso weak and slender
pipara grove of cypress trees; plain with cypress trees
pipik smart
pira flat
pira Hira
pirak open t
pirakata Hirakata
pirakutuma [unknown]
pirase flat rapids (one occurrence has the double-entendre ‘ordinary lover’)
pire shawl
pirip pick up
piro wide
piro [unit of measurement (length)]
pirop pick up
piropasi wide bridge
piror be widespread
pirose wide rapids
piru leek
piru daytime, day
pirumye Hirume, Hirumi (a separate name for Amaterasu Ōmikami)
pisa be a long time
pisa yellow catalpa
pisagwi (a kind of) catalpa tree
pisakata [unknown; only in pisakatano]
pisakatano [makura kotoba for ame, ama, tuku, miyakwo]
pisasa long time
pisasi be a long time
pisi water chestnut
pisi lozenge
pisi squeak [onomatopoeia]
pisigara water-chestnut shell
pisipo a kind of (pickling) miso
pit get drenched
pita one
pita direct, unwavering, fully
pitapye one layer
pitar mature
pitari one person
pitasawo cloth made exclusively from hemp (without mixing in other materials)
pitateri fully shining
pitati Hitachi
pitatuti bare ground
pito one
pito woman, women
pitoduma another’s spouse
pitogoto gossip, rumours, reputation rumours, gossip (what others say)
pitokowe one cry
pitokuni other country
pitoma when nobody is there; when nobody is looking
pitopi one day
pitopye one layer
pitorigwo only-child
pitotose one year
pitu chest; large lidded box
pitugi Imperial throne
pitura layered cloth the same color front and back
piwo young sweetfish, young ayu
piye barnyard grass
piza knee
pizi sandbank
piziri sage; sage emperor
po hundred
po fire
po small hut
po ear of plant
po peak, height of something; something very good
pobikor be wide
poda field where the rice is in ear
podari small flask for sake
podok loosen
podoro dawn, daybreak
podoroni lightly and in spots (of snow falling and settling)
podoropodoro lightly (of snow falling and settling)
podumi Hozumi
pok pray
poka other side; outer side
poko spear
pokor boast
pokorop be proud
pome extol
pomuta Homuta
pono faint
ponoka faint
ponopo fire, flames
popogasipa magnolia hypoleuca
popomar (buds) swell
popusi (Buddhist) priest, monk
por scoop out
por desire
porobos ruin
porobwi go to ruin
poroni so as to scatter?
pos drain t
posi want
posi star
poso slender, slim
posokapa Hosokawa
potaru firefly
potoke Buddha
potopoto almost
potopotosikuni almost
pototogisu lesser cuckoo (Cuculus poliocephalus)
potu upper
potumwori [unknown]
potuye upper branches
potwo time, period
poye howl
poyo mistletoe
pu fire
pu growing place
pu joint
pu stripe
pudi wisteria
pudipara Fujiwara
pudisirwo Fujishiro
puk blow
puk thatch
puk shake
puka deep
pukame make deep
pukamiru a kind of seaweed (which grows in the deep)
pukamiruno [makura kotoba for puka and miru]
puke grow late
pukepi Fukei
puki [unknown; only in yamabuki]
pukikapyes blow and turn over
pukure fat person
pukurwo bag
pukusi digging stick
pum tread
pumiadas saunter
pumikaras trample till dry
puminaras trample flat
puminuk step in
pumiokos urge
pumitapirage trample till flat
pumitate urge
pumite writing brush
pumitukwi seventh month
pumodasi bonds (for tying a horse’s legs)
pumoto the foot of a mountain
puna boat
puna crucian carp (Carassius)
punaamari [makura kotoba for kapyer (l030518a)]
punabito boatman
punadana boat planking
punadomo boat stern
punagipop race boats
punakwo sailor
punanor ride boat
punapasi boat bridge
punase Funase
punayosop rig boat
pune boat
pupa Fuwa
pupaya fluffiness
pupo [unknown; only in pupogomor (l031545a)
pupogomor contain
pupum (buds) swell
pur fall down
pur shake
pur touch i
purabape be touching
pure touch t
pure wave
puri get old
purinadum rain hard
puriokos stir up
purisake revere
purisik rain hard
puru old
puru Furu
purukapa Furu kawa
purukuma Furukuma
purukusa old grass
purumapi behaviour, conduct
purupi Furuhi
purupye old home
purus make old
purusatwo hometown
pus lie prone
pusa all, ample
pusap suit
pusape [unknown]
pusatawori [makura kotoba for tamu]
puse lay prone
puseya small low house
puseyataku [makura kotoba for /susu/, because soot (susu) easily appears when you burn (taku) a fire in a small house (puseya)]
pusikwoye Fusikoe
pusimi Fushimi
pusuma bedding
pususani many
puta two
putagami Futagami
putagamiyama Mt. Futagami
putakami Futakami
putakamiyama Futakami-yama; Mt. Futakami
putami Futami
putanarab be paired
putapogami [unknown; probably ‘governor of Futa’]
putapye two layers
putasaya double scabbard
putasayano [makura kotoba for ipye wo pyedate]
putayuk go past something twice
puti deep, quiet water; deep pool
putumani completely
putwo great
putwosik build
putwosir build palace
putwotakasik build pillars splendidly
puye flute, pipe, whistle
puyu winter
puyugomori [makura kotoba]
puyukwi winter tree
puzi Fuji
pwi dry
pwi sneeze
pwi fire
pwi gutter
pwida Hida
pwimo cord
pwinepwine be off; have gone off; be past its peak
pwiwe slice off
pye [allative case particle]
pye counter for layers
pye direction
pye leaf
pyedas be away
pyedat be away
pyedatar be away
pyedate put away
pyeguri Heguri
pyenar be apart
pyeta edge (of water); coast
pyetukap accompany
-r- [intransitivizer]
ra [property attributive; pluralizer; ]
ram [present conjectural]
rasi [presumptive]
-re- [passive]
ri counter for people
rikizi strong person
rikizimapi name of ceremonial dance
ro [interjectional particle]
ro [diminutive suffix]
rokamo [interrogative final particle]
rokamu [interrogative final particle]
-s- [transitivizer]
-s- [respect]
-sa [exclamatory form of adjectival copula]
sa [verbal prefix of unknown function]
sa [nominal prefix]
sa position, vicinity
sa narrow
sa arrow
sa fifth (month)
sa red
sabape summer fly; ‘fifth-moon/fifth-month fly’; ‘mayfly’
sabasir run
sabisi regrettable; sad
saburu Saburu
sabusi regrettable; sad
-sabwi- [verbal formant]
sabwi be excited
sada time, opportunity
sada Sada
sada [unknown]
sadam [unknown]
sadamar be fixed
sadame pacify
sade fish trap
sade Sade
saduke give
sadwop [unknown]
sagamu Sagamu
sagar go down
sagaraka Sagaraka
sagarakayama Sagaraka-yama
sagasi steep
sagi heron
sagisaka Sagisaka
sagoromo sa garment
sagukum push apart
sagumor get cloudy
sagumye Sagume
sagur hunt for
sak bloom
sak (waves) break
sak split
sak send away
saka reverse
saka rice wine
saka slope, hill
saka borderline
saka Sakyamuni
saka unit of volume
saka unit of length
sakabaye flourishing
sakadukwi liquor cup
sakadwo Sakado
sakakwi sakaki (cleyera japonica)
sakamak spindrift
sakamiduk [unknown; possibly: serve alcohol]
sakanobor go upstream
sakap fix boundaries
sakapuk invert reeds and thatch
sakar be at peak
sakar be apart
sakaribito vigorous person
sakasi clever
sakasira know-it-all
sakate Sakate
sakatori early bird
sakaye prosper
sake healthy, prosperous
sake shun
sake be apart
sake be split in two
sake rice wine
saketu Saketsu (only found in Saketsu-shima)
saketusima Saketsu-shima
saki healthy, prosperous
saki blooming
saki before
saki border
saki good luck
sakidat put ahead
sakikusa [unknown; a type of three-bladed grass]
sakimori border guard
sakimuri border guard
sakipap prosper
sakipapi prosperity, good fortune; happiness
sakita Sakita
sakitama Sakitama
sakitat put ahead
sakitir bloom and scatter
sakitutosi previous year
saku safely
sakum push way through
sakur dig a well
sakura cherry
sakurabana cherry flower
sakurada Sakurada
sakurapana cherry flower
sakwi [unknown; maybe ‘split’]
sakwide chapped hands
sakye healthy, prosperous
sakyeb shout
sama way, means, reason
samas open eyes
samaywop wander
same wake
same rain
same fine rain
sami Sami
samorap serve
samu cold
samura seeming, looking cold
sana seed, pit, stone
sanakadura Kadsura (vine); Kadsura Japonica
sanakadura [makura kotoba for noti, taye-, iya toponaga-, sa-ne-]
sanatura Sanatsura
sane not one bit
sane sleep
sane seed, pit, stone
sanekadura Kadsura (vine); Kadsura Japonica
sanekadura [makura kotoba for ap- or noti mo ap-]
sanekaya root sedge
sanesasi [makura kotoba for Sagamu]
saniturapu [makura kotoba]
sanokor remain
sanu Sanu
sanukata Sanukata
sanuki Sanuki
sanunowoka Sanu-no-oka
sanwo narrow field
sanwo Sano
sanwoda Sanoda
sanwokata vine
sanwokata vine
sanwopari alder
sapa many
sapa splendid
sapa swamp
sapada many
sapar be hindered
saparap be hindered
sape [restrictive particle]
sape plug
sapeki Saeki
sapeni [restrictive particle + copula; typically marks subjects]
sapi type of sword
sapidur chirp
sapidurap chirp
sapika Saika
sapo Sao
sapogapa Sao kawaSao gawa
sapokapa Sao kawaSao gawa
saponogapa Sao-no-kawaSao-no-gawa
saponokapa Sao-no-kawaSao-no-gawa
saponoyama Sao-no-yama
sapoyama Sao-yama
sapyek speak noisily and unintelligibly
sapyenapye refuse
sar leave
sara furthermore
sarap leave
saras expose
sarasara on top of everything else
sarasarani on top of everything else
saru ape
sas point
sas (plants) grow (up)
sas close, shut
sasa sasa (broad-leaf bamboo)
sasa Go on!
sasa minutely divided
sasaba bamboo-grass leaf
sasaganeno [makura kotoba for kumo ‘spider’]
sasagas give
sasage give
sasak [unknown]
sasanami small wave
sasanami Sasanami
sasap pierce
sasapa bamboo-grass leaf
sasara minutely divided
sasara Sasara
sasaragata minute pattern
sasayak whisper
sasi castle
sasi [unknown]
sasibu Shashambo (Vaccinium bracteatum)
sasimakur [unknown]
sasimukap be facing each other
sasinarab be lined up
sasipak put on feet
sasiwatas spread
sasiyak bake
sasiyor get close
sasizumi [unknown]
sasup invite
sasutake [unknown]
sasutape beautiful
sate that way
sate Sade
sato quick-witted
satu good fortune
satukwi 5th month
satuma Satsuma
satuya type of arrow used for hunting
satwo village
satwobito village person
sawag be noisy
sawak be noisy
sawasawa noisy
sawatar go across
sawawe [unknown; noisily?]
sawesawe rustle-rustle
sawi rushing
sawisawi rushing-rushing
sawo pole, oar
sawobik lead horse
sawodor dance
sawosika buck
saya distinctly
saya distinct
saya distinct
saya scabbard
sayag rustle
sayak rustle
sayaka brightly, clearly
sayake refreshing
sayar block
sayasaya chafe-chafe
saye become intensely cold
saye die, dice
sayuribana lily flower
sayuribana [makura kotoba for yuri]
saywo night
saywodoko sa night-bed
saywopimye Sayohime; Matura Sayohime
sazak [unknown]
sazaki winter wren (Troglodytes troglodytes); wagtail
sazare small, minute
sazarenami ripple
sazaresi pebble
se do
se [unknown; probably either se ‘rapids’ (l090058) or se ‘beloved’ (l090126)
se Se
se rapids
se dear, beloved
se stalked barnacle (capitulum mitella)
se narrow
se Se
seba narrow
sek dam
seki border
sekwo man, child
seme attack
semi cicada
senoumi Se-no-umi
senoyama Se-no-yama
serare be done
serasimye bend
seri Java dropwort (Oenanthe javanica)
ses do [respect]
seta Seta
setwo strait
setwo Seto
seze shallows
-si- [simple past]
si [restrictive particle]
si 3rd person pronoun
si below
si stone
si teacher, master
si clear
siba often
siba (small) branch, twig
siba Shiba
sibakaki brushwood fence
sibami see often
sibanak cry often
sibasiba over and over
sibatat happen often
sibatuki Shibatsuki
sibi tuna (Thunnus)
sibimaro Shibimaro
sibom wilt
sibutani Shibutani
sibuwo [unknown]
-sibwi- [verbal formant]
sida time
sida Shida
sidakusa fern (Polypodiidae), or weeping fern (Lepisorus thunbergianus)
sidar hang, droop i
sidariyanagwi weeping willow
side wear
side Side
sidu lower
sidu [unknown; only in sidusuge]
siduk sink i
siduke quiet, calm
siduku droplet
sidum get quiet
sidumar get quiet
sidume quiet t
sidusi [unknown]
sidusuge (a kind of) sedge
siduwo low-born person
siduye lower branches
siga Shiga
siganotu Shiga-no-tsu
sigaram entangle
sigarami weir
sigatu Shigatsu
sige lushness, overgrowth; dense growth
sige rife, overgrown, abundant
sige rife, overgrown, abundant
sigemi overgrown flora
siger flourish
sigi snipe; sandpiper
sigup [unknown]
sigure passing rain of autumn
sigye rife, overgrown, abundant
sik catch up with
sik (plants, etc.) thicken
sik spread
sik rule
sika that way
sika deer
sika Shika
sikama Shikama
sikar be so
sikasugani nevertheless
sike rife, overgrown, abundant
sikemi overgrown flora
sikimi Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum)
sikir continuous
sikitape bed cloth
sikitapeno [makura kotoba]
sikitu Shikitsu
siko stupid, disgusting, unworthy
sikor [unknown] (screw up, fail?)
sikoya despicable house
sikura Shikura
sikusiku frequently
sikusikuni frequently
sikwi [unknown]
sikwisima Shikishima
sikwotomye unworthy woman
sikye rife, overgrown, abundant
sikyesi dilapidated
sim be permeated
sima island
sima Shima
sima garden decorated with ponds and or mounds
simadutap go from/to island
simagakur hide near an islandbe hidden near an island
simagakure be hidden near island [a euphemism for death]
simakage island shadow
simanomiya Shima-no-miya
simar bind
simaraku for a little while
simasi for a time
simasi for a time
simatutori [makura kotoba for u]
-sime- [respect]
sime permeate
sime possess
sime proprietary sign
simekoromo dyed garment
simenwo plain with a sign forbidding entry
simi vastly
simidu cold, clear water
simimi densely
simira (day) is complete
simisabwi [unknown]
simo frost
simo under, down, low
simoto branches of low trees
simotukyenwo Shimotsukeno; Lower Keno
simwi [verbal formant]JDB suggests that simwi is a suffix that creates verbs (cf. kamusabwi). It’s only attestted once: MYS 6.1052
simyera (day) is complete
simyes show
sin die
sinadayupu [makura kotoba]
sinaga type of water fowl; little grebe?
sinanwo Shinano (or possibly Shinanu, following Vovin)
sinap be supple
sinase cause to die
sinatatu [makura kotoba for the place name Tsukuma; meaning unknown]
sinateru [makura kotoba for the place names Kataoka-yama and Katashiwa-gawa; meaning unknown]
sinaye wither
sinazakaru [makura kotoba]
sinikapyer die again
sino thin-culmed dwarf bamboo
sinoburap endure
sinobwi hide
sinokipa a type of arrow, apparently named after the feather used
sinop admire
sinup admire
sinwo thin-culmed dwarf bamboo
sinwo limp, exhausted
sinwob admire
sinwoda Shinoda
sinwog endure
sinwonome [unknown; curtain made from bamboo sticks??]
sinwonwoni soaked, drenched
sinwop admire
sinwopara bamboo plain
sinwopara Shinohara
sinwopukusa Squirrel’s footfern (Davallia mariesii)
sinwosima Shinoshima
sinwosusuki small bamboo and pampas grass
sip go senile, go numb
sipabuk cough
sipabure clear throat
sipani low clay
sipase Shiwase
sipasu 12th month
sipatu Shihatsu [unknown]
sipatuyama Shihatsu-yama
sipi Chinquapin oak (Castaneoideae, cuspidata or sieboldii)
sipo tide
sipo salt
sipo number of dyeings
sipobune tide boat
sipopo tear-sodden
sipopune tide boat
sipopwi low tide, ebb tide
siposawi rushing of the ebb tide
sipose tidal rapids
sipotu Shiotsu
sipotuyama Shiotsu-yama
sipwi compel
sipwi Shii
sir rule
sir know
sira white
siraga white hair, white fringe
siraka white hair, white fringe
sirakamwi Shirakami
sirakasi white oak
sirakatuku [makura kotoba for yupu (l090012)]
sirake whiten i
sirakumo white cloud
sirakwi Shiraki (Shilla)
siramayumi [makura kotoba]
siranupi [makura kotoba]
sirapige white beard
sirasaki Shirasaki
sirase inform
sirasuge a type of sedge tree, perhaps with white leaves
siratama white jewel
siratopopu [makura kotoba for wo-nipita-yama]
siratorino [makura kotoba for ne wo nak-, samayop-]
siratukwi Shiratsuki (only found in Shiratuki-yama)
siratukwiyama Shiratsuki-yama; Mt. Shiratuki
siratuyu white dew
sirayama Shirayama
sire inform
siri behind
siriburi sight from behind
siripye rear side
siro equivalent, collateral
siru evident, fitting
siru behind
siru sap, juice
sirupa Shiruwa
sirus mark
sirwo white
sirwotadamuki white arm(s)
sirwotape white cloth
sirwotapeno [makura kotoba]
sirwotori white bird
sise kill
sisi father
sisi meat, flesh
sisi game animal
sisikusiro [makura kotoba]
sita below
sita tongue
sitaba low leaf
sitabape think to oneself
sitabimo undergarment cord
sitabwi low gutter
sitadami [unknown] small shellfish?
sitader shine beautifully
sitagokoro think from the bottom of one’s heart
sitagoromo under garment
sitagumo low cloud
sitagwopwi secret love
sitakaze low wind
sitakwi low tree
sitakwogare burning with love
sitamopi secret thoughts
sitanak grieve
sitanaki grieving
sitap fall in love with
sitap glow red
sitapape think to oneself
sitapimo undergarment cord
sitata diligent
sitawemasi be joyful
sitoto meadow bunting (Emberiza cioides)or black-faced bunting (Emberiza spodocephala
situ Japanese cloth
situ lowly person; lowlife
situ Shitsu
situku Shitsuku
situkura upholstered seat
situmaki upholstered stool
situpata fabric loom
situtamaki woven bracelet
siwa wrinkle
siwabuk cough
siwam wrinkle i
siweya [interjection]
siwodi Shioji
siwore wilt
siyakwosiya [interjection]
siyawo [interjection]
sizi abundantly
sizimi basket clam (Cyrenidae)
sizinuk transfix at every point
so [focus particle]
so that
so back, dorsal side
soba buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)
sodar be complete
sodatak [unknown]
sogapini facing back, backwards
sok move away
soke put away
sokidaku many
sokipye faraway area
soko there
soko bottom
sokoba that much
sokopi bottom
sokorakuni that much
sokupye far off place
soma mountain used for logging
some dye
some begin, do for the first time
somekwi dye tree
somuk turn back on
sone hardscrabble field
soni kingfisher
sono garden
sonopu garden
sop be next to
sope accompany
sopo red clay
sopobune red boat; boat painted with red clay
sopopune red boat; boat painted with red clay
sopopur rain
sopot be wet
sopoti be wet
sor shave
sora state of mind
sore that (one)
sorikupi (beard) stubble
sosok wash
sosor tower
soti [unknown]
sotomo rear side, side facing opposite
sotubikwo Sotsubiko
sowapye [unknown]
soyo rustling
su [restrictive particle]
su sand
su nest
su rough woven matting or screen
su vinegar
subye means, manner, remedy, recourse
subyena helpless, without recourse
sudak be many
sudare curtain
sudeni already
sudori sandbar bird
suga sedge
sugamo sedge-like seaweed
sugapara sedge plain
sugapara Sugawara
sugara (night) has passed
sugaru wasp
sugasi fresh, pure
sugasima Sugashima
sugata figure, attitude
sugatatami sedge tatami
sugaura Sugaura
suge sedge
sugomo placemat for eating
sugur pass
suguroku dice
sugus let pass
sugwi pass time
sugwos let pass
suk hoe
sukana depressed, melancholic
sukara trunk of a bare tree (from which the leaves have fallen)
suke help
suki back sling, truss
sukuna be few, be a little; small in number or degree
sukuna Sukuna
sukune Sukune
sukup rescue
sukusuku rapidly, vigorously
sukwosi slightly, to a small degree
sukyeki [unknown; crack, crevice, opening?]
sum rest, stop (intr.)
sum live at
sum get clear
suma Suma
sumap reside
sumapito person from Suma
sumera emperor, imperial highness
sumi ink
sumi corner
sumida Sumida
suminapa carpenter’s inkline
suminoye Suminoe
sumire violet
sumisaka Sumisaka
sumomo Chinese plum (Prunus salicina)
sumuyake fast, prompt
sumye divine, imperial, exalted
sumyegamwi (regional) deity
sumyekamwi (regional) deity
sumyera emperor, imperial highness
sumyerabye emperor’s vicinity
sumyeroki male imperial ancestor
sunador fish
sunapati thereupon
supa Suwa
sur scrape
sura [restrictive particle]
suribukurwo basket bag
surituke rub together
suruga Suruga
sus get sooty
susa Susa
susabwi flourishwither
susu Susu
susug wash
susuk wash
susuki Japanese pampas grass (Miscanthus sinensis)
susukori Susukori
susum advance
susume make advance
susurop slurp
sususikipop fight hard
suswo foot of a mountain
suswobik draw a train
suswomwi vicinity of the foot of a mountain
suswopik draw a train
sute discard
suwe make sit
suwe tip, top, end
suwe pottery, earthenware
suwe Suwe
suwepito pottery-maker
suwepye top side
suzu jingle
suzuka Suzuka
suzuki sea bass
suzume sparrow
suzupune bell boat
suzusi cool, cold
swo ten
swo hemp
swo Shoo! [interjection or onomatopoeia]
swobap joke around
swode sleeve
swodetukegoromo sleeved garment
swoga Soga (clan)
swogi planed plank
swoma mountain for logging
swonap [unknown]
swop be next to
swope accompany
swopi side, beside, place alongside smth.
swora state of mind
swora_mitu [makura kotoba]
swora_ni_mitu [makura kotoba]
sworadi halfway
swote sleeve
-t- [unknown; possibly variant of -s-]
t [complementizer]
t copula
ta [unknown function]
ta who
ta hand
ta purpose, benefit, sake
ta field
ta sword
tab deign
tabanare hands are separated
tabar receive [hum]
tabasam clutch
tabasami Tabasami
tabasamiyama Tabasamiyama
tabasir splash violently
tabi travel
tabi frequency
tabikoromo journey garment
tabimaneku many times
tabine take lodging on a journey
tabipito traveler
tabito traveler
tabure go mad
tabuse hut
tabute ducks and drakes, skipping stones
tabwi travel
tabwi torch
tada precisely
tada precise
tadak strike
tadaka [unknown; person in the flesh?]
tadakwoye Tadakoe
tadama hand jewel
tadameni directly, face-to-face
tadamukap face straight
tadamuki forearm
tadamwi person in the flesh
tadasikumo however; only, just
tadayopas make drift
tade knotweed (Persicaria)
tadikara grip, hand strength
tadimamori Tajimamori
tadipi Tajihi
tado Tado; only in Tadokawa
tadokapa Tadokawa
tadoki clue
tadori Tadori
tadu egret
tadu [unknown; some kind of tree]
tadugana anxious
tadugane egret
taduki clue
tadukur prepare
tadumi flood
taduna Tazuna
tadune seek
tadusapar join hands
tadusape join hands
tadutadusi anxious
tadwoki clue
tadwor go visit
tagane [unknown]
tagap differ
tage eat/drink
tagi waterfall, cataract
tagi Tagi
tagima Tagima
tagimati the road to Tagima
taginoupe Taginoue
tagit flow fast (of water)
tagiti splash(ing)
tagituya Tagitsuya
tagup be accompanied by
tagupe accompany
tagwo Tago
tagwosi passing from hand to hand
tak kindle
tak comb and bind up
tak [unknown; something to do with riding a boat or riding horses, maybe?]
taka high
taka bamboo
taka falcon
taka Taka
takabe common teal
takadama pieces of bamboo put together on a string
takagaya tall sedge
takakura high place
takakurano [makura kotoba for Mikasa]
takakwi high fortress
takakwi Takaki
takakwinoyama Takaki-no-yama
takama Takama
takamatu Takamatsu
takamatwo Takamato
takamatwoyama Takamato-yama
takami hilt
takamikura high throne
takane high peak
takanwopara Takanohara
takapa Takawa
takapa bamboo leaves
takapasi Takahashi
takapi high sun
takapikaru [makura kotoba]
takar be high
takara treasure
takasazi Takasaji (only in Takasajino)
takasazinwo Takasajino
takasi Takashi
takasik rule augustly
takasiki Takashiki
takasima Takashima
takasir build high
takasiru_ya [makura kotoba]
takataka expectant, anxious
takatama pieces of bamboo put together on a string
takaterasu [makura kotoba]
takatipo Takachiho
takatob fly high
takatono high tower
takatu Takatsu
takatuki long-stemmed cup
takatunwo Takatsuno
takatunwoyama Takatsuno-yama
takaya Takaya
takayama high mountain
takayuk go high
takayuku_ya [makura kotoba]
take bamboo
take peak
taketa Taketa
taketi market located in a high place
taki waterfall, cataract
taki Tagi
takiswonape [unknown]
taku mulberry tree
takubusuma bark-fabric bedding
takudunwo rope or net made from bark of the mulberry tree
takudunwono [makura kotoba for sirwo, sira]
takumi craftsperson
takunapa rope made from the bark of the mulberry tree
takunapano [makura kotoba for long, longlasting]
takupap lay up store
takupire bark-fabric cloth
takupireno [makura kotoba for kake-, sirapama]
takupura arm bulge
takwo Tako
takwomura arm bulge
takwonosaki Tako-no-saki
takwonosima Tako-no-shima
takwonoura Tako-no-ura
takye manly
takye be sad
takyebwi be fierce
takyeru Takeru
takyeswokani [unknown]
tama beautiful
tama spirit
tama Tama
tama_kagiru [makura kotoba]
tamabapaki jewel broom
tamadare [unknown; only in makura kotoba tamadareno (l091059)]
tamadareno [makura kotoba for wosu (l080276), woti ()]
tamadasuki [makura kotoba]
tamade fine hands
tamade Tamade
tamadusa messenger
tamadusano [makura kotoba for tukapi, imo]
tamakadura jewel vine
tamakadura [makura kotoba]
tamakaki fine fence
tamakapa Tamagawa
tamakatuma [makura kotoba]
tamake fine dish
tamaki bracelet
tamakiparu [makura kotoba for uti, inoti, ikuyo, wa, iswo]
tamakura arm pillow
tamakusige beautiful comb box
tamakusige [makura kotoba for ake, putagamiyama, mimoro, asikwi, opop, oku ni omop]
tamakusiro [makura kotoba]
tamamaki something inlaid with jewels, decorated with jewels
tamamo beautiful seaweed
tamamo beautiful skirt
tamamori keeper, guard of pearls, jewels
tamamoyosi [makura kotoba]
tamana Tamana
tamanowono [makura kotoba]
tamap give
tamapar receive [hum]
tamapayasu [makura kotoba]
tamape receive [hum]
tamapoko fine halberd
tamapokono [makura kotoba for miti]
tamar (water) accumulates
tamasaka by chance
tamasima Tamashima
tamasimakapa Tamashimakawa
tamasipi soul
tamatasuki [makura kotoba]
tamatusima Tamatsushima
tamatusimayama Mt. Tamatsushima
tamayurani for a short while
tame [unknown; possibly ‘accumulate water’]
tame purpose, benefit, sake
tami people
tamoto wrist, cuff
tamotopor go back and forth
tamotopori [makura kotoba for yukimwi]
tamu Tamu
tamudak fold arms
tamukapi resistance
tamuke make offerings
tamuke Tamuke
tamukekusa offering material
tamwi twist
tana completely
tana plank in boat
tanabata the Weaver
tanabik (snow, fog) form a layer
tanagwirap be foggy
tanakami Tanakami
tanakamiyama Tanakami-yama
tanakura Tanakura
tanare habitual use
tanasir know fully
tanayupi [unknown]
tane cause, origin
tani valley
tanigir grasp
taniguku toad
tanigwir grasp
tanipadi Tanihazi
tanom rely on
tanome make trust
tanomo rice field, rice paddy
tanwosi pleasurable, enjoyable
tapa foolish
tapabure play
tapakoto foolish words
tapami [unknown; only in tapamidura]
tapamidura [unknown; a type of vine, creeper]
tapare commit adultery
tapasam clutch
tape withstand
tape cloth made from the bark of the mulberry tree
tape heavenly
tapi tai (species of reddish-brown Pacific sea bream, Pagrus major)
tapirage rule
tapirake calm, quiet, peaceful
tapito traveler
tapu pagoda
tapusaki loincloth
tapusi Tōshi
tapusinosaki Tapusi-no-saki
taputo valuable
taputwo valuable
taputwobwi [unknown]
taputwom esteem
-tar- [stative]
tar suffice
tar drip
tarap be full
tarapas make full
tarasipimye Tarashihime
taratine [Unknown; only in makura kotoba taratineno (l091028)]
taratineno [makura kotoba for papa (l051720)]
taratisi [unknown]
taratisi_ya [makura kotoba for papa]
taratisino [makura kotoba for papa]
tare hang t
tare who
taresu curtain
taru Taru(hime; (Lady) Taru
tarumi falling water, waterfall
tasi plentifully
tasi sword
tasidasini completely, to the full
tasika reliable, safe
tasike sufficient
tasimi [unknown]
tasimidake luxuriant bamboo
tasuke help
tasuki sling to free the hands
tat cut
tat depart
tata shield
tata warp thread
tatak strike
tatakap fight
tatamikeme tatami mat woven from the stalks of Manchurian wild rice
tatamikomo tatami mat woven from the stalks of Manchurian wild rice
tatamikomo [makura kotoba for pyeguri]
tatanaduk pile up i
tatanaduku [makura kotoba for awokaki, awokakiyama, nikipada]
tatanamete [makura kotoba for place names Inasa, Izumi]
tatane pile up t
tatapasi complete
tatari spindle
tatasa upright position
tatazum loiter
tate stand
tate shield
tate warp thread
tatematur offerbe given
tati [pluralizer]
tati departing
tati sword
tati Tachi (only found in Tachi-yama)
tatiap meet
tatibana tachibana (inedible citrus, Citrus tachibana)
tatibana Tachibana
tatibanawo [makura kotoba for moribye (l080249) (because of its homophony with mor ‘guard’)]
tatibasir romp
tatidwo standing place
tatikapar be renewed
tatikapyer return
tatikomo [unknown; only in tatikomono; komo thought to be EOJ form corresponding to kamo]
tatikomono [makura kotoba for tati]
tatikuk pass under
tatimatini very soon, shortly
tatimotopor go and return
tatimukap stand and turn to face
tatinaras beat a path
tatinosiri [makura kotoba]
tatipana tachibana (inedible citrus, Citrus tachibana)
tatipasir romp
tatisakaye grow lush
tatisinap stand gracefully
tatisoba standing buckwheat
tatiyama Tachi-yama; Mt. Tachi
tatiyosop be decked out
tatope liken
tatu dragon
tatugomo upright mat
tatuka handle
tatukaduwe hand stick
tatuta Tatsuta (in Tatsutahiko)
tatuta Tatsuta
tatutanoyama Tatsuta-no-yama
tatutapikwo Tatsuta-hiko (god who controls the wind)
tatutayama Tatsuta-yama
tawa lecherous?
tawam bend i
tawarapa infant; baby; little child
tawasure forget
tawatawa bendy-bendy
tawaya weak
tawayamye weak woman
tawi paddy
tawor bend t
tawori saddle (mountain pass)
tayasu easy
taye break
tayema gap, break, interval
tayu tired, weak
tayupi Tayui
tayupigaura Tayui-ga-ura
tayur cease, stop
tayuraki Tayuraki
tayutap be unsettled by movement
taywor cease, stop
taywowa very weak
-te- [perfective]
te hand
te cloth, material
te place, interval
teburi custom, practice
tedukara by one’s own hand
tedukuri hand-made, hand-woven cloth
tegwo young girl, maiden
tegwona maiden, young girl
ter shine
tera temple
terap show
teras make shine
terasap show
terusadu [unknown]
ti thousand
ti counter for things
ti road
ti breast
ti cogongrass
ti (venerable) male
tiba myriad leaves
tiba Chiba
tibano [makura kotoba for kadu]
tidori plover
tidori plover
tigaya cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)
tiguma Chiguma
tika near
tika Chika
tikaduk approach
tikara strength
timata crossroad
tinu Chinu
tipap (gods) help
tipaya [unknown; only in tipayapito]
tipayaburu brutal
tipayaburu [makura kotoba]
tipayapito [makura kotoba for Uji]
tipiro be very long
tipu cogongrass lawn
tipye myriad layers
tir scatter i
tirap scatter
tiras scatter t
tiri dust
tirimagap be confused with
tiripidi dust and mud
tirisugwi scatter and vanish
tisa Japanese snowbell tree (styrax japonica)
tita Chita
titi father
titi [unknown (a type of tree?)]
titinomwino [makura kotoba for titi]
titipapa father and mother
titori plover
to [focus particle]
to [comitative case particle]
to [complementizer]
to [concessive conjunctional particle]
to [purposive conjunctional particle]
to constant
to copula
to sound
to bird
tob fly
toba Toba
tobas make fly
tobata Tobata
tobikaker fly high
tobupwi Tobuhi
toburap visit
tobusa tip of tree
tobutorino [makura kotoba for Asuka]
todo pounding [onomatopeoia]
todokopor be bogged down
todomar be left behind
todome stop t
todomwi stop
todoro rumbling [onomatopoeia]
toga fault, sin
togame censure
togar do falconry
toge accomplish
togura aviary
tok untie
tokage permanent shade
toke come untied
toki when
tokiarapigoromo unsewn garment
tokidoki every time
tokikapas untie one another’s sash
tokikape untie
tokikinuno [makura kotoba for midare- l031692a]
tokimori time keeper
tokipa immutable stone
tokisake untie
tokitoki every time
tokitukaze regular wind (blowing for example when the tide comes)
tokitukaze [makura kotoba for pukepi]
tokizi timeless, constant
toko constant
toko bed
toko Toko
tokobye bed side
tokoname mossy banks (of a river)
tokopa evergreen leaf
tokoro place
tokorodura Onidokoro (Dioscorea tokoro Makino)
tokorotura [makura kotoba for tokosiku, tomeyuk-]
tokosiku for a long time
tokosipeni always, constantly
tokosipyeni always, constantly
tokotoba eternal
tokoyo eternal world
tokoyopye everlasting area
tokwo Toko
tomar stop i
tome stop t
tome pursue
tomi tracker of animals
tomi Tomi
tomo [concessive conjunctional particle]
tomo together
tomo fellows, guys [pluralizing noun]
tomo bracer (armguard)
tomo stern (of a boat)
tomo Tomo
tomokara fellows, co-members
tomonape take along
tomonobye soldier
tomonowo trades-person
tomos kindle
tomosi evoking desire
tomosi lamp
tomosibwi covet
tomosibwi lamplight
tomosime cause envy
tonami net for birds
tonami_paru [makura kotoba]
toneri palace servant, attendant
tono palace
tonobik (snow, fog) flows
tonodwo building door
tonogomor seclude in palace
tonogumor cloud up completely
tonokomor seclude in palace
tonosiku [unknown]
tonotwo building door
top ask, say
top propose marriage
topetapomi Toetaomi
topo far
topo_tu_pito [makura kotoba for matu]
topodoposi distant
topoduma distant spouse
topona famous name
toponaga far removed in time
topor pass through
topos let through
toposiro big, great
toposok be apart
topotu Tōtsu
topotukamwi [makura kotoba for wagoopokimi]
topotuma distant spouse
topozakar be far apart
tor hold in hand
torape seize
tori holding in hand
tori bird
tori Tori
tori_ga_naku [makura kotoba for aduma]
torikapi Torikai (only in Torikai-gawa)
torikapigapa Torikai-gawa
torimi help
torimot rule, govern
torimuke offer
toriside hang t
toriyama Toriyama
toriyorop adorn
torosi Toroshi
tose counter for years
tosi time
tosikipar die old
tosikoro recent years
tosinopa every year
tosinowo long year
toti father
totomi high tide
totonop arrange
totonope arrange
towerap swell
towi roll
towo ten
towo full
towom swell
toworap [unknown; maybe ‘undulate’]
towowo full unto bending under one’s own weight
towoyor [unknown]
toya Toya
toyo abundant
toyo resounding
toyokuni Toyokuni
toyom (re)sound
toyome make sound
toyomos cause to sound
toyora Toyora
tu [genitive case particle]
tu counter for things
tu copula
tu harbor
tubaiti Tsubaichi
tubaki common camellia (Camellia japonica)
tubame barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)
tubana flower of cogongrass
tubara plentiful, complete
tubaraka plentiful, complete
tubaratubara heartfelt
tubasa pair of wings
tubo jar
tubosumire viola arcuata Blume (aka Viola verecunda A. Gray)
tubure rounded, worn smooth
tubusa plentiful, detailed
tuda Tsuda
tudu star
tudumi drum
tudura type of vine
tudusirop eat in small bites
tudwop gather i
tudwope gather t
tug be connected with, be joined with
tuga southern Japanese hemlock
tuganwo Tsugano
tugap pass on
tugap pass on
tugar tie
tuge tell
tuge Japanese box (Buxus microphylla)
tuginepu [makura kotoba for yamasiro (l052385)]
tuginepuya [makura kotoba for yamasiro (l052385)]
tugipasi extending brige
tugitugi again and again
tuk turn autumn
tuk arrive
tuk hull
tuk pierce
tuk build
tuk soak i
tuk supply
tuka handful [measure]
tuka mound
tukam grip
tukane bundle
tukanedomo [makura kotoba for tukunwo (l080014)]
tukap use
tukap attach
tukap stick close to
tukape serve
tukapematur wait upon
tukapi messenger
tukare tire i
tukas pickle t
tukasa official
tukasa small elevation
tuke attach
tuke pickle t
tuki wine cup
tuku moon
tuku zelkova tree
tukuma Tsukuma
tukume [unknown, possibly a pin on a “yao2lu3” oar used as a handle]
tukunwo Tsukuno
tukup shut
tukupa Tsukuba
tukupane peaks of Mt. Tsukuba
tukupanoyama Tsukuba-no-yama
tukupayama Tsukuba-yama
tukur make
tukurap make
tukus use up
tukusi Tsukushi
tukuwe stand, table
tukuwe Tsukue
tukuyomi (the) moon
tukuyumino [makura kotoba]
tukuywomi (the) moon spirit
tukwi be used up
tukwi month
tukwi tribute
tukwi zelkova tree
tukwi wine cup
tukwi crested ibis (Nipponia nippon)
tukwigoro recent months
tukwikusa Asiatic dayflower (Commelina communis)
tukwikusano [makura kotoba for inoti, uturopu]
tum pluck
tum stuff
tuma spouse
tuma hem
tuma nail
tuma Tsuma
tumade rough hewn lumber
tumadop propose marriage
tumaduk stumble
tumagomoru [makura kotoba]
tumakwi twigs, tinder
tumama tabunoki (Machilus thunbergii)
tumapik buckle (a bow); pulling string with finger or nail
tumar congregate
tumaya house for husband and wife
tume hoard
tume nail
tume foot (head) of bridge
tumi sin
tumi mulberry
tumor pile up
tumuga Tsumuga
tumuzi whirlwind
tuna rope
tunag check
tunag bind
tunak bind
tunasi gizzard shad (Konosirus punctatus)
tune normalcy, eternity
tunepito ordinary person
tunuga Tsunuga
tunusapapu [makura kotoba for ipa]
tunusasi Tsunusashi
tunwo horn, antler
tunwo rope
tunwo Tsuno
tunwo Tsuno
tunwoga Tsunoga
tunwosapapu [makura kotoba for ipa]
tunwosima Tsunoshima
tupi final, ultimate
tur angle
tura string, bowstring
tura [unknown; a type of vine, creeper]
tura sequence
tura brutal
turaname line up t
turanuk go through
turara sequential
turarak [unknown]
turatura heartfelt
ture connection, concern
turi fishing
turibune fishing boat
turipune fishing boat
turu string, bowstring
turu Tsuru
turubami acorn-coloured
turugi sword with a straight blade and usually double-edged
turugi Tsurugi
turugitati sword
turugitati [makura kotoba for na]
turuki sword with a straight blade and usually double-edged
turupami acorn-coloured
tusi soil
tusima Tsushima
tuta grape ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata)
tutap be communicated
tutape communicate
tute communicate
tutekoto conveyed words
tuti soil
tuti hammer, mallet
tutipari paris, true lover’s knot
tutome work hard
tutui mallet
tutuk peck at
tutuk continue i
tutuke continue t
tutukwi Tsutsuki
tutum pile up to stop flow
tutum be hindered
tutumi obstacle
tutumi dam
tutumiwi dammed up well
tutuzi azalea
tutwo early (in the morning)
tutwo present, gift
tutwome work hard
tuwe walking stick
tuwe_tarazu [makura kotoba]
tuwo Tsuo
tuyu dew
tuyusimo dew and frost
two [conjunctional particle]
two fast
two sword
two outside; outer
two entrance, passage
two place
twog whet
twoga southern Japanese hemlock
twogokoro sharp wits
twok arrive
twok arrive
twoke come untied
twomi wealth
twomibito wealthy person
twonami waves in straits
twonami Tonami
twonape recite
twonari nearby; next-door
twone Tone
twoni [conjunctional particle]
twop ask, say
twopi Toi
twor shine
twor hold in hand
twora [unknown]
twora tiger
tworo [unknown]
twosa Tosa
twositodwo [interjection]
twotu Totsu(miya)
twozi female head of household
u sad
u cormorant
u fourth of the jūnishi series
ubap capture
ubara thorn
ube indeed
uda Uda
udak [unknown]
udi Uji
udi clan name
udigapa Uji gawa
udikapa Uji gawa
udima Ujima
udimayama Ujima-yama
udipito clan’s person
udu vortex, tidal whirlpool
udu rare, wonderful
udukwi fourth month
udunap value
udura quail
uduranaki [makura kotoba for puru]
uduranaku [makura kotoba for puru]
udusipo tidal whirlpool; spiralling, whirling current
ugara blood relatives
ugupisu Japanese bush warblerJapanese nightingale (Cettia diphone)
ugutuk [unknown]
ugwok move i
ugwokas move t
uk float i
ukab float i
ukabe float t
ukagap spy on
ukakap spy on
ukanerap keep eyes peeled
ukapa cormorant river
ukapi cormorant fisher
ukare amble
uke float t
uke float (for fishing)
uke receive
uke gape
ukegutu holey shoe
ukep pray for
ukesuwe set afloat
ukinunapa floating junsai (Brasenia schreberi)
ukita Ukita
ukwo foolish, stupid
ukyera Atractylodes japonica
um give birth
um spin (yarn)
um despair
uma tasty
uma horse
umaguta Umaguta
umakori [makura kotoba for ayani]
umap [unknown]
umapito noble person
umapitosabwi appear greatperson likefix
umara tasy, delicious
umara thorn
umare be born
umasake delicious liquor
umase stall, corral
umaya stable, barn
ume plum
umi birth
umi spinning (yarn)
umi sea
umibye sea shore
umipye sea shore
umiwo spun hemp thread
umiwonasu [makura kotoba for nagatwo and nagara]
umo potato
umore [unknown; buried, submerged]
umoregwi long buried or submersed tree or tree trunk which has carbonized or fossilized
una head, neck
una sea
unag hang around neck
unagaker [unknown]
unagas urge
unakabus hang head
unakami sea bluffs
unakami Unakami
unakudar go to sea
unapara sea plain
unapi Unai
unate Unate
unawi hair hanging down by the nape of the neck
unawipanari young girl (with such a hairdo, or of the age typical of such a hairdo)
une [unknown; only in unemye]
unebwi Unebi
unebwinoyama Unebi-no-yama
unebwiyama Unebi-yama
unemye lady-in-waiting
uno sea
unopana deutzia crenata
unopara sea plain
upa above
upagwi starwort
upanari second wife
upapye [unknown; amiability?
upe above
upye above
upyekata Uekata(yama)
ura tip
ura inlet
ura future, limit
ura divination
uraba end leaf
urabure wither
urabye fortuneteller
uragupa mulberry tree (of some kind)
uragupasi lovely, beautiful
uragwopwisi longing for (in one’s heart)
uramat wait anxiously
uramwi envy
uramwi around the inlet
uramyesi grieving
uranake cry to oneself
uranap divine
uranwo Urano
urapa end leaf
urape divine
urasabwi lament
urasima Urashima
urasipo inlet tide
urasu inlet sandbar
urawaka young and lovely
ure tip
uremu how
urepe lament
uresi be joyful
uresibwi regard with joy
ureta vexing, annoying
uri melon
urupasi beautiful
uruwa Uruwa(kawa)
uruya Uruya(kawa)
usa [unknown]
usaka Usaka
usayuduru replacement bowstring
use get lost
usi cow
usimadwo Ushimado
usinap lose
usipak control
usipo tide
usiro behind
usirode rear direction
usirwo behind
usobuk pucker and blow
usu sparse
usu mortar
usupi Usui
usurabi weak sun
usure get thin
ut hit
uta song; poem
uta very
utagatamo really
utak roar
utap sing
utatakedani [unknown]
utate unusually
ute discard
uti [emphatic]
uti hit
uti now
uti Uti
utikutiburino [unknown]
utimwi Uchimi
utinabiku [makura kotoba]
utipi [unknown; only in makura kotoba utipisasu]
utipisasu [makura kotoba for miya, miyakwo]
utipisatu [makura kotoba for miya, miyakwo]
utipisazu [makura kotoba for miya, miyakwo]
utiswo hemp which has been struck to make it softer
utiswoyasi [makura kotoba for womi]
utukusi pretty, cute
utumasa Utsumasa
utupari beam
utur change i
uturautura clearly
uturop change
uturwop change
utus transfer
utuse [unknown; only in utusegapi)]
utusegapi seashell
utusemi ephemeral world
utusemino [makura kotoba]
utusi honest
utusigokoro sanity, sensibility
utusomi ephemeral world
ututa Utsuta
ututape recklessly
utute discard
ututu present, reality
utuyupu [unknown]
uwe plant
uwe starve
uwedake planted bamboo
uwegusa sprouting grass
uwekwonagwi planted, cultivated water leek
uweopos plant and raise
uwo fish
uyamap respect
uzu flowers for hair ornament
uzusumar [unknown]
wa [interjectional particle]
wa 1st person pronoun
wa outline
wabure be discouraging
wabwi disappointed
wabwisi disconsolate
wada inlet, bend in the land
wadori my bird
waduka Wazuka
waduki [unknown; when? whether?]
wadurap suffer
wagapye my house
wagimo my love
wagimokwo my beloved
wagimwo my love
wagipye my house
wak distinguish
waka young
waka Waka
wakakape youth (?)
wakakapyerude young maple
wakakomowo [makura kotoba for karidi (because of similarity with kar ‘harvest’)]
wakakupe youth (?)
wakakusa young grass
wakakusano [makura kotoba, mainly for tuma]
wakame seaweed
wakare be parted
wakas boil t
wakasa Wakasa
wakasadi Wakasaji
wakayar [unknown]
wakayu young sweetfish
wake split t
wake that guy
waki armpit
wakibasam hold under arm
wakidukwi armrest; elbow rest
waku young
wakugwo youth, young man
wakurabani by chance; rarely
wana trap, net
wani Wani
wanu 1st person pronoun
war divide t
wara straw
warabi bracken, fern (Pteridium aquilinum)
warapa child
ware be split
ware 1st person pronoun
waro 1st person pronoun
wasa early
wasada early rice paddy
wasapo early sheaves
wase early rice
wasi eagle
wasi [interjection]
wasir run
wasiride place close to the entrance (as you have just come out)
wasise make run
wasur forget
wasure forget
wasuregapi half shell
wata sea, ocean
wata intestine
wata cotton
watakusi private, secret
watakusida private, secret field
watar go across
watarap go by crossing
wataride ford
watarize fording rapids
watas build across
watatumi sea
wawake worn out
wawaraba [unknown; loose and disheveled leaves?]
waya weak
waza job, work
wazami Wazami
we [interjectional particle]
we picture, drawing
wegu eleocharis kuroguwai (a type of sedge); kuroguwai
wegusi sake of smile(s)
wem smile
wemap smile
wemapasi (which) makes you smile
wemimagar [unknown; maybe ‘bending over laughing’]wemmagar
wemisakaye shine
wep get drunk
wer carve
werawera smiling
wi sit
wi sitting
wi lead
wi well
wi boar
wi bulrush
wi rank
wiakas sit up all night
wide weir
wigupi dam post
wikapi Ikai
wikwo wild-boar young
wina hinterlands
wina Ina
winaka hinterlands,the sticks
wine lead someone to bed
wiyuk go along
wo [diminutive]
wo [accusative case particle]
wo [interjectional particle]
wo [conjunctional particle]
wo yes
wo life
wo manly
wo tail
wo hemp
wo hill
woba [conjunctional particle]
wobana Japanese pampas grass (lit. ‘tail flower’) (Miscanthus sinensis)
wobatuse Obatsuse
wobune small boat
wodate small shield
wodate [makura kotoba for Yamato]
wodi old man
wodina unskillful
wodor jump
wodukupa Ozukuba; Little Tsukuba
wodume a kind of utagaki taking place by the water, or at the side of a bridge
wodwo Odo
wogapa small river
wogura Ogura
wogusa Ogusa
wogwi common reed (Miscanthus sacchariflorus)
wok invit